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German, 20th century, male.

Born 26 August 1882, in Berlin; died 4 July 1939, in Berlin.

Draughtsman, illustrator, poster artist, caricaturist.

Symbolism, Jugendstil.

Hermann Abeking was still very much influenced by the Jugendstil, and particularly by Aubrey Beardsley and Jan Toorop. He worked on several German magazines, including the ...


Catherine Cooke


(b Moscow, 1873; d Moscow, Oct 9, 1924).

Russian poet and theorist. He is generally seen as the leader of the Russian Symbolist movement in non-visual arts, but he was also closely associated with Symbolist painters and graphic artists through the glossy journals that were mouthpieces for their synthesist philosophy. Thus during 1901–04 he contributed to the literary section of Mir iskusstva (‘World of Art’), and from 1904 to 1909 he was editor of Vesy (‘The scales’); in 1906–07 he wrote for Zolotoye runo (‘Golden fleece’) and during 1909–11 for Apollon, as well as for several literary journals. Becoming aware as a student of the growing ‘decadent’ trend in European poetry he set out consciously in 1893 to lead such a movement in Russia, publishing three small poetry collections in 1894–5 with a schoolfriend, A. Miropolsky-Lang. His translations of European poets such as Paul Verlaine initially brought him more respect than his early poems. Drawing heavily on formal and technical innovations abroad, Bryusov developed a theory of artistic synthesis that emphasized technical precision and control of form over mimetic or theosophical concerns. This attention to detail and emphasis on the aesthetic was symptomatic of the ‘first generation’ of Russian Symbolists, who, under the leadership of Bryusov and Konstantin Bal’mont (...


Belgian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1861, in Lille; died 1938, in Ghent.

Painter, engraver, illustrator, graphic designer. Figure compositions.


Charles Doudelet studied music at the Ghent conservatory and sculpture at the Ghent school of industrial art and design. He lived abroad for many years, mostly in Italy. He was a member of the artistic group ...


Julius Kaplan

(b nr Termonde, Sept 12, 1858; d Brussels, Nov 12, 1921).

Belgian painter, illustrator, sculptor, designer, photographer and writer. He was one of the foremost Symbolist artists and active supporters of avant-garde art in late 19th-century Belgium. His wealthy family lived in Bruges from 1859 to 1864, moved to Brussels in 1865, where Khnopff remained until his death, and spent their summers at a country home in Fosset, in the Ardennes. Fosset inspired numerous landscapes that owe a strong debt to Barbizon-style realism (see 1979 cat. rais., p. 210), which dominated advanced Belgian painting in the late 1870s. Khnopff abandoned law school in 1875, and, turning to literature and art, he studied with Xavier Mellery at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels. During visits to Paris (1877–80) he admired the work of Ingres and was especially attracted to the painterly art of Rubens, Rembrandt, the Venetian Renaissance and particularly Delacroix. At the Exposition Universelle of 1878 in Paris he discovered Gustave Moreau and Edward Burne-Jones, both of whom indelibly influenced his art. He studied with ...


Dutch, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 11 February 1868, in The Hague; died 1943, in The Hague.

Painter, watercolourist, pastellist, poster artist. Religious subjects, figure compositions, landscapes, seascapes.


After studying under Arnaud Gerkins and then Hendrik Willem Mesdag, Willem van Konijnenburg entered the art academy in The Hague. From ...



French, 20th – 21st century, female.

Born 7 October 1951, in Paris.

Painter. Figure compositions, architectural views.


Lorsa took the graphic design course at the École Estienne in Paris. After her master's degree she qualified to teach in higher education and had a chair at the Faculté d'Arts Plastiques until ...


Belgian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 14 April 1871, in Antwerp; died 1959, in Antwerp.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman, illustrator, poster artist, graphic designer. Urban landscapes.


Edmond van Offel was Constant van Offel's brother. He attended the Academie voor Schone Kunsten and the Nationaal Hoger Instituut voor Schone Kunsten in Antwerp. A member of the Salon de la Rose-Croix, he also taught at the Nijverheidsschool in Antwerp in ...


Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 21 January 1879, in Ghent; died 1947, in Basel.

Painter, engraver, graphic designer, designer.


Laethem-St-Martin Group (First School).

Jules de Praetere was a student at the royal academy and at the industrial school in Ghent. As an art printer, he was a member of the first Laethem-St-Martin Group. He taught arts and crafts: at the school of fine art in Krefeld ...


Czech, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 17 February 1872, in Popovice, near Beroun; died 27 April 1918, in Prague.

Painter, mosaicist, poster artist. Murals.


Mánes group.

Jan Preisler trained under Frantisek Zenišek at the Prague school of applied art from 1887 to 1895. He joined the ...


Swiss, 20th century, male.

Born 22 December 1913, in Straubenzell (St Gall); died 26 March 2008.

Painter, draughtsman, illustrator. Portraits.


Victor Ruzo started out as a poster artist and went on to paint portraits, landscapes and still-lifes. His personal universe is a product of symbolic Surrealism in a Salvador Dali vein, with interspersed religious and metaphysical allusions. In ...


Russian, 20th century, male.

Born 1875, in Moscow; died 1958, in Moscow.

Painter, graphic artist, designer. Local scenes, landscapes. Stage sets.

Symbolism, Socialist Realism.

Groups: Peredvizhniki (Wanderers), Association of Artists of Revolutionary Russia (AKhRR).

Konstantin Fedorovich Yuon studied under Abram Arkhipov, Konstantin Korovin, and Konstantin Savitsky at the Moscow Institute of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture from 1892 to 1898 and in the studio of Valentin A. Serov from 1898 to 1900. He then went travelling to Germany, Switzerland, Italy, and France, and on his return taught in his own studio in Moscow from 1900 to 1917. He taught at the USSR Academy of Art (1934–1935) and the Moscow Art Institute (1952–1955)....