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Argentinian, 20th century, male.

Born 1912, near Buenos Aires.

Painter, potter.

Acebal Y Digoras went to Spain to study at the school of fine arts in Bilbao, then began to exhibit in Bilbao and Paris. After returning to Argentina, he regularly took part in the national salon, as well as in collective events in Latin America, such as the salon in Mar-del-Plata ...



Jorge G. Marcos

Pre-Columbian regional culture of coastal Ecuador that flourished c. 500 bcc. ad 500. Archaeological field research by Emilio Estrada and Matthew and Marion Stirling at Manta, Manabí, identified a platform-mounded Bahía urban and ceremonial centre. Since no extensive excavation of the area was conducted, the only evidence for Bahía houses is a number of terracotta models, similar in form to examples from China; some archaeologists, such as Meggers, consider them as evidence of transpacific influence. Excavation of a few test pits produced a relative ceramic sequence and some radiocarbon assays. In the Guayas Basin, to the south, Bahía-like Tejar and Guayaquil phases have been described by Meggers and Parducci. Bahía pottery appears to have evolved from the earlier Chorrera style developed by intensive farming communities in the rich alluvial valleys of central Manabí and the Guayas Basin. Bahía potters practised a highly developed craft, having mastered not only traditional coiled construction but also slip-casting, a technique introduced during the Chorrera period. They were proficient in controlled smudging and resist decoration, and excelled in the use of polychrome slips, employing a wide spectrum of mineral and organic pigments. Another characteristic was decoration encrusted after firing in brilliant yellows, reds, greens and blues. Flutes, ocarinas and flamboyantly decorated whistling bottles with spouts and strap handles imitated human and animal forms. At ...


Giulio V. Blanc

(b Havana, Sept 3, 1914; d Westchester, Oct 30, 2008).

Cuban painter, ceramicist and printmaker. He studied at the Academia de S Alejandro in Havana (early 1930s) and at the Academia de S Carlos in Mexico City (1938), where he also became familiar with the work of the muralists. He had his first one-man exhibition at the Lyceum in Havana in 1942.

Bermúdez shared with many of his contemporaries an interest in Cuban realities and themes painted in a manner that was in keeping with 20th-century art movements. His work from the 1940s is characterized by popular Cuban scenes and types depicted in an almost caricatural, naive style with loud tropical colours (e.g. The Balcony, 1941; New York, MOMA).

In the 1950s Bermúdez abandoned the folkloric themes and tropical voluptuousness of his earlier paintings, instead depicting elongated, barely human, Byzantine-like figures. The most accessible of these paintings are of acrobats and musicians. In 1967 Bermúdez left Cuba for political reasons and settled in San Juan, Puerto Rico. There he continued to evolve metallic colour harmonies and surrealistic imagery including clocks, ladders and turbaned figures in his paintings. He also produced murals and lithographs, and his best-known print is the silkscreen entitled ...



Gordon Campbell

[bucaro; búcaro; buccaro]

Scented red earthenware brought originally by the Portuguese from Mexico; the word derives from Portuguese búcaro (clay cup). The term also denotes similar earthenware made in Portugal and Spain (especially Talavera) from the 16th to the 18th centuries, and the imitation made by Johann Friedrich Böttger at Meissen; the name is also applied to the red Chinese stoneware made in Yixing.

M. C. García Sáiz and J. L. Barrio Moya: ‘Presencia de cerámica colonial mexicana en España’, An. Inst. Invest. Estét., vol.58 (1987), pp. 108–10 M. C. García Sáiz and M. Ángeles Albert: ‘La cerámica de Tonalá en las colecciones Europeas’, Tonalá: Sol de barro, ed. S. Urutia and J. de la Fuente (Mexico City, 1991) J. C. Castro and M. C. McQuade: Talavera Poblana: Four Centuries of a Mexican Ceramic Tradition (Albuquerque, NM, 2000) B. Hamann: ‘The Mirrors of Las Meninas: Cochineal, Silver, and Clay’, A. Bull., vol.92 (March–June 2010), pp. 6–35...


Ellen Paul Denker

American porcelain manufacturer. Gousse Bonnin (b ?Antigua, c. 1741; d c. 1779) moved in 1768 from England to Philadelphia, where he established the first porcelain factory in America with money from an inheritance and with investments from George Morris (1742/5–73). The land was purchased late in 1769 and in January 1770 the first notice regarding the enterprise was published. The first blue-decorated bone china wares were not produced until late in 1770. Newspaper advertisements noted ‘three kilns, two furnaces, two mills, two clay vaults, cisterns, engines and treading rooms’ and listed such wares as pickle stands, fruit baskets, sauce boats, pint bowls, plates, plain and handled cups, quilted cups, sugar dishes in two sizes, cream jugs, teapots in two sizes, and breakfast sets. Well-established foreign competition, however, was too formidable for the new business, which had to charge high prices to meet large expenses; production ceased by ...


Brazilian, 20th century, male.

Born 1927.

Painter, potter.

A 'popular' painter from the north-eastern region, Brennand rejected the easy path of regionalism and exoticism for its own sake. Nevertheless, his work is a product of his regional roots, with which he combines fantasy, the fabulous and fantastical. In Recife, he used drawings transformed into transparencies to illustrate Paulo Freire's method of increasing literacy and consciousness-raising....


Roberto Pontual

revised by Gillian Sneed

(b Recife, Jun 11, 1927).

Brazilian painter and ceramicist. Brennand began his training in 1942 under sculptor and ceramicist Abelardo da Hora (1924–2014), and later studied painting with Murilo Lagreca (1899–1985) and Álvaro Amorim, founder of the Pernambuco Escola das Belas Artes. Brennand’s early paintings depicted flowers and fruit with simple lines and bright colors. In 1947 he won the first prize at the Salon of the Museu do Estado de Pernambuco, Recife. He made an extended visit to Europe from 1949 to 1952, living mainly in Paris, where he studied with the Cubo-Purists André Lhote and Fernand Léger, whose tumescent forms had a lasting influence on his work. During this period, he also became familiar with the work of Pablo Picasso and Joan Miró, which inspired him to focus on pottery and ceramics. He was also inspired by the eccentric architecture of Antoni Gaudí, which he observed on a trip to Barcelona in the 1950s. On his return to Recife, where his family had long been responsible for a vast output of industrial ceramics, he dedicated himself increasingly to his work with art pottery. In 1954 he completed his first large-scale ceramic panel. Beginning in 1958 and throughout his career he carried out ceramic murals in several Brazilian cities and abroad, the most outstanding being the ...


Peruvian, 20th century, female.

Active in France.

Sculptor. Figures.

Margarita Caballero received her initial training in Peru and Mexico. She worked in clay, stoneware, resins and powdered metal, sculpting women and children in familiar everyday poses. She settled in France, in 1992 showing a set of sculptures in Perthes (Seine-et-Marne)....


Cuban, 20th century, male.

Born 28 May 1923, in Havana; died 30 September 1981, in Havana.

Painter. Figure compositions, figures, nudes. Designs for carpets, designs (objets d'art/ceramics).

Servando Cabrera-Moreno began studying art in 1942 at the Academia Nacional de Bellas Artes San Alejandro in Havana. By ...



Jane Feltham

Pre-Columbian culture of South America. It centred on the Chancay Valley of the central Peruvian coast, ranging north and south to the Fortaleza and Lurín valleys, and is known for its distinctive pottery and textile styles. Chancay culture flourished between c. ad 1100 and 1470, under Chimú rulership in the 15th century. Vessels and textiles have been found at such sites as Cerro Trinidad, Lauri and Pisquillo, mostly in graves covered with stout timbers and a layer of earth.

Chancay vessels were made by coiling; modelled features sometimes occur, but elaborate jars were moulded. The fabric, fired to a light orange, is thin and porous. Some vessels are covered with a plain white slip, but most are also painted with brownish-black designs. Forms include bowls, goblets, tumblers, cylindrical jars and ovoid jars with rounded bases and narrow, bulging necks that sometimes end in a flaring rim. Vessel heights range from 60 mm for bowls to 750 mm for jars. Animals (especially birds and reptiles) and humans are frequently modelled on the upper shoulder or around a handle. More elaborate jars are zoomorphic or consist of two flasks connected by a bridge. Some show scenes, such as a dignitary being carried on a litter. Vertical black bands often divide design areas, within which are patterns of stripes, wavy lines, crosshatching, diamonds, triangles and dots, chequers, volutes and stylized birds or fishes, sometimes in assymetrical halves. Characteristic of the style are large, necked jars with faces (known as ...


Peter W. Stahl

Pre-Columbian culture, named after the site of La Chorrera on the River Babahoyo, in the Guayas Basin, Ecuador. It flourished between c. 1000 and c. 500 bc, during Ecuador’s Late Formative period (c. 1500 bcc. 500 bc). The terms ‘Chorrera’ and ‘Chorreroid series’ encompass a number of diverse but related cultures of the Guayas coast, ranging northwards from the province of El Oro to the northern area of the province of Manabí and reaching inland to the banks of the Daule and Babahoyo rivers.

The Chorrera style shows particular affinity to the earliest stages of the art of the Engoroy phase (c. 900–c. 500 bc). La Chorrera itself was discovered by F. Huerta Rendón, and later work was carried out by Emilio Estrada, Clifford Evans, and Betty Meggers.

The culture represents the apogee of the early art styles of Ecuador, having a wide geographical distribution and serving as a basic foundation for subsequent developments. During the Late Formative period, the use of metal was introduced, along with the manufacture of earrings and new types of figurines, figure modelling, red and white zoned ceramics, and negative-painted wares. The ...


Colombian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active also active in France from 1989.

Born 1953, in Rivera.

Sculptor. Figures. Busts.

Raul Cortés Castaneda was one of sixteen children. A self-taught artist, he began by modelling figures and animals in clay and carving fruit kernels. He left his family to study drawing, ceramics and modelling when he was 16. In ...


George Bankes

Pre-Columbian culture and art style of South America. It was centred on a small, dry valley c. 50 km north of the Chicama Valley, Peru. Various sites were located and excavated in the 1930s by Rafael Larco Hoyle. Ceramics from Cupisnique burials and stone-walled structures in the Chicama Valley were attributed to the north-coast version of the Chavín style in the Central Andean area. Lumbreras suggested that Cupisnique ceramics were contemporaneous with the ‘Ofrendas’ style of Chavín and therefore dated between c. 800 and c. 300 bc. Cupisnique pottery has also been found in the Moche and Nepeña valleys south of Chicama. The earliest date for the Cupisnique culture has been pushed back to c. 1000 bc using radiocarbon measurements from such temples as the Huaca de Los Reyes in Moche with its enormous unbaked clay feline heads. Both Larco and A. R. Sawyer proposed chronologies for Cupisnique ceramics. Sawyer defined Early Cupisnique pottery (...


Blanca Serrano Ortiz de Solórzano

(b Roman, Moldavia, 1908; d Havana, 1991).

Cuban painter, sculptor, filmmaker, set designer, and ceramicist of Romanian birth. A pioneering figure in the development of concrete abstraction in Cuba, he was a member of the Havana-based artist group Diez Pintores Concretos, and he collaborated with the Argentine art movement Arte Madí.

In 1926 Darié moved to Paris where he studied Law, worked as a cartoonist for French and Romanian print media, and befriended avant-garde artists. In 1941 he fled Vichy France for Cuba, obtaining citizenship four years later. After a period of lyrical abstraction inspired by the local landscape, Darié turned to non-objective art. His first solo exhibition, Composiciones, was held at the Lyceum in Havana in 1949, and later traveled to the Carlebach Gallery in New York where the Museum of Modern Art acquired Composición en Rojo (Composition in Red, 1946).

In New York, Darié met the painter Jean Xceron (1890–1967), who introduced him to the sculptor Gyula Kosice, who was one of the founders of ...


W. Iain Mackay

(b Lima, 1926).

Peruvian painter, printmaker, and ceramicist, active in Europe. He studied at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes in Lima until 1953 and then began to exhibit paintings, prints, murals, and ceramics on an annual basis in Lima. He continued his studies in Spain in 1956, and from then on remained in Europe, mainly in Paris and Madrid. In Paris he became an assistant at the printmakers’ workshop at the École Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts. Following a period in Cuba where he worked at the Taller de Grabado de Cubanacán, Espinoza Dueñas returned to France to study ceramics at Sèvres, executing sculptural, symbolic works reminiscent of Pre-Columbian Peruvian ceramics. His paintings, which are expressionistic in style, are colorful, energetic and full of symbolism (e.g. Pampa Road, 1955; Lima, Mus. A.).

Lavalle, J. A. de and Lang, W. Pintura contemporánea II: 1920–1960, Col. A. & Tesoros Perú. Lima, 1976, pp. 158–159.Evento artesanal cerámico: Taller Museo de Cerámica Contemporánea, creado y dirigido por el maestro Francisco Espinoza Dueñas, con la colaboración del Ayto. de Pilas (Sevilla)...


Karen Cordero Reiman

(b Aguascalientes, May 30, 1900; d Mexico City, Aug 26, 1984).

Mexican painter, printmaker, writer and ceramicist. He enrolled at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes, Mexico City, in 1917 and soon became active in the post-revolutionary nationalist cultural movement, attempting to recuperate folk-art motifs and techniques. In 1920 he designed a ceramic frieze for the Colegio Máximo de San Pedro y San Pablo, Mexico City. He edited the influential art magazine Forma (1926–8) and was involved in creating the Escuela Libre de Escultura y Talla Directa, Mexico City, the ¡30–30! group (which promoted the democratization and de-academization of the arts), and the Centros Populares de Pintura, which offered art education to people in industrial areas, encouraging the representation of their surroundings without academic constraints. In the 1930s he directed an exhibition space funded by the Ministerio de Educación Pública, for which, with Roberto Montenegro and Francisco Díaz de León, he designed posters and catalogues noted for their innovative typography. Fernández Ledesma also produced prints inspired by popular graphics and figurative paintings influenced by Picasso and by Pittura Metafisica; he also wrote several books on popular traditions and stage and costume designs....


Argentinian, 20th century, male.

Active in Italy from 1905, naturalised Italian.

Born 19 February 1899, in Rosario de Santa Fé, to Italian parents; died 7 September 1968, in Comabbio (Varese).

Painter (including gouache/mixed media), watercolourist, sculptor, potter, draughtsman.


Abstraction-Création group.

At the age of six, Lucio Fontana went to Italy with his parents, an Argentinian mother and his Italian father, Luigi Fontana, who was a funerary sculptor. It appears that he later went back to Argentina, only returning to Italy as a soldier during World War I. When the war was over he returned to Argentina and remained there from 1922 to 1927, working for a time in his father’s business before devoting himself entirely to sculpture and returning to Italy in 1927. In Milan, Fontana enrolled as a student of sculpture with Adolfo Wildt at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera and received his diploma in 1930. In 1934, with other artists, he founded the ...


George Bankes

Pre-Columbian culture and art style that flourished in northern coastal Peru during the Early Intermediate period, between c. 300 bc and c. ad 200. It was named after the site of Gallinazo (Sp. ‘turkey buzzard’) in the Virú valley, which was excavated by the American archaeologist Wendell Bennett in 1936. The Gallinazo culture has been shown to have succeeded that of Salinar in the Virú, Moche and Chicama valleys. Gallinazo architecture in the Virú valley was characterized by a honeycomb dwelling pattern. Some of the walls of the buildings were decorated with cut-out designs in tapia (puddled clay) and adobe mosaics, such as the frieze at El Carmelo. The Gallinazo culture as represented in the Virú valley was subdivided by Bennett into three phases, on the basis of changes in building methods and pottery styles. Gallinazo i is characterized by incised and punch-decorated pottery with some use of negative-painted decoration, which involved covering the design areas in a heat-resistant substance and then firing it. The substance was removed after firing, leaving the negative design. In Gallinazo ...


Jorge G. Marcos

Pre-Columbian culture of coastal Ecuador, which flourished c. 500 bcc. ad 500. Archaeological research initiated by Geoffrey Bushnell in 1951 has shown that the Guangala people occupied the forest of the Santa Elena Peninsula from the Chongón-Colonche Cordillera to the sea, extending north through the narrow coastal strip of southern Manabí Province. Like their predecessors, who made Engoroy style pottery, the Guangala people were experts at farming dry land, mostly using condensed fog for irrigation, as well as being accomplished sailors. Ceramic wares similar to those of Engoroy and Guangala have been found in Guatemala, suggesting that a long-distance trade network between Ecuador and Mesoamerica already existed at this period. Studies of settlement patterns in the Chanduy Valley show that Guangala people established permanent hamlets in diverse micro-environments, as well as larger sites, which served as centres of economic, religious, and political power, and regional and long-distance trade. Guangala houses were built on a rectangular plan and had wooden frames and wattle-and-daub construction, with ornate baked clay eaves, window, and door frames....


Brazilian, 20th century, female.

Born in Conquista.

Painter, sculptor, draughtswoman.

Maria Guilhermina's father, the ceramicist Joaquim Gonçalves was invited to collaborate on the construction of the new capital city of the state of Goias. Maria learned the basics of clay modelling from her mother. She studied under the German painter Udo Horst Knoff who had settled in Brazil and taught at the school of fine arts at Goias university. She also attended sculpture classes with Henning Gustav Ritter. In ...