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Article

Greek, 20th century, male.

Active in Egypt then in France.

Born 1900, in Volos; died 1990, in Paris.

Painter. Figure compositions, figures, landscapes with figures.

Aristomenis Angelopoulos studied painting in Alexandria, Egypt, where he lived from 1916 until 1955. He was a director and teacher at the painting section of the Khartoum Institute in Sudan between ...

Article

C. Hobey-Hamsher

(fl later 4th century bc–early 3rd).

Greek painter. Born in Egypt, Antiphilos was a pupil of Ktesidemos. Although none of his works survives, he painted both large and small pictures and was famous for the facility of his technique (Quintilian: Principles of Oratory XII.x.6). Pliny (Natural History XXXV.114, 138) listed many of his pictures, which included portraits (Philip II and Alexander the Great with the Goddess Athena, in Rome in Pliny’s day; Alexander the Great as a Boy, also taken to Rome; and Ptolemy I of Egypt Hunting) and mythological subjects (Hesione; Dionysos; Hippolytos Terrified of the Bull; and Cadmus and Europa), all of which were in Rome in Pliny’s day. He also painted genre pictures: A Boy Blowing a Fire, a painting much admired for the reflections cast about the room and on the boy’s face, and Women Spinning Wool. The Egyptian city of Alexandria was an artistic centre famous for the depiction of comic figures and grotesques in several media. In that context, Antiphilos contributed a picture of a man called ...

Article

4th century, male.

Active in the Hellenistic era.

Painter.

Ancient Greek.

Born in Egypt, Antiphilus was a pupil of Ctesidemus. A rival of Apelles, he is said to have slandered him to Ptolemy, becoming his slave as a result. Like Apelles, Antiphilus painted official portraits, generally of an idealised kind: ...

Article

male.

Possibly Egyptian, despite his Greek name.

Sculptor.

Ancient Greek.

A Head of Isis in pure Egyptian style was signed and dedicated by Apollonius. It formerly belonged to the Hoffmann Collection.

Article

Greek, 19th century, male.

Active in Paris.

Born in Constantinople, of Greek parents.

Painter. Genre scenes.

This artist lived in Alexandria and travelled in Egypt. He exhibited in the Paris Salons of 1893 and 1896.

Article

male.

Artist (?).

This name was engraved on a stone beneath an Egyptian mummy, with a snake around it. It is not known whether it is the name of the owner of the work or that of the artist.

Article

Galaton  

2nd century, male.

Painter.

Ancient Greek.

Galaton is thought to have worked in Alexandria in Egypt.

Article

Barry Bergdoll

(b Cologne, June 15, 1790; d Paris, Dec 31, 1853).

French architect, writer and archaeologist of German birth. In 1810 he left Cologne with his lifelong friend J. I. Hittorff for Paris, enrolling at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in 1811 under the tutelage of the ardent Neo-classicists Louis-Hippolyte Lebas and François Debret. But from the beginning Gau was exposed to a wider field of historical sources, first as assistant site architect under Debret on the restoration of the abbey church of Saint-Denis (1813–15) and then from 1815 in Nazarene circles in Rome, where he met the archaeologist and philologist Barthold Nieburh (1776–1831), who arranged a scholarship for him from the Prussian government and a trip through the eastern Mediterranean. In Egypt Gau undertook an arduous trip down the Nile to visit and record the monuments of Nubia, which he published as the lavish folio Antiquités de la Nubie. He noted assiduously every trace of colour on the remains, just as he was to do in ...

Article

Helena  

4th century, female.

Painter.

Ancient Greek.

Helena, daughter of the Egyptian Timon, painted a Battle of Issus that Vespasian had placed in the temple of Peace.

Article

C. Hobey-Hamsher

Greek painter of unknown date. According to Pliny (XXXV.16), it was either Kleanthes or the otherwise unknown Philokles of Egypt who invented outline drawing. Athenagoras (xvii) gave credit to the otherwise unknown Saurios of Samos for the invention of this technique, but included Kleanthes in his list of the earliest artists (those who worked before the gods were depicted), incorrectly assuming that secular subjects were depicted before divine ones. Indeed, deities were shown in at least two of the three paintings by Kleanthes held in the Temple of Artemis Alpheiosa in the territory around Olympia (Strabo: VIII.343; Athenaeus: VIII.346b–c): the Birth of Athena and Poseidon Offering a Tunny Fish to Zeus (Zeus was in labour, perhaps with the second birth of Dionysos). The third painting was the Fall of Troy. No other painting by Kleanthes is recorded, and none of his work survives.

Pauly–Wissowa; Thieme–Becker Athenaeus: Deipnosophists Athenagoras: Intercession Concerning the Christians...

Article

Greek, 20th century, male.

Active in France from 1924.

Born 1905, in Port Said, Egypt, to a French mother and a Greek father; died 1990, in Seine-Port, France.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver. Figures, figure compositions, still-lifes, portraits. Stage costumes and sets.

Mayo was educated in Alexandria but went to Paris in ...

Article

Nealces  

3rd century, male.

Active in Sicyonc.252 BC.

Painter.

Ancient Greek.

Nealces belonged to the famed Sicyon school of painting. Attributed to him are an Aphrodite, a Man Breaking in a Horse and a Naval Battle between Egyptians and Persians on the Nile.

Article

Noémie Goldman and Kim Oosterlinck

Term for the return of lost or looted cultural objects to their country of origin, former owners, or their heirs. The loss of the object may happen in a variety of contexts (armed conflicts, war, colonialism, imperialism, or genocide), and the nature of the looted cultural objects may also vary, ranging from artworks, such as paintings and sculptures, to human remains, books, manuscripts, and religious artefacts. An essential part of the process of restitution is the seemingly unavoidable conflict around the transfer of the objects in question from the current to the former owners. Ownership disputes of this nature raise legal, ethical, and diplomatic issues. The heightened tensions in the process arise because the looting of cultural objects challenges, if not breaks down, relationships between peoples, territories, cultures, and heritages.

The history of plundering and art imperialism may be traced back to ancient times. Looting has been documented in many instances from the sack by the Romans of the Etruscan city of Veii in ...

Article

3rd century, male.

Cameo engraver.

Ancient Greek.

Satyrius engraved the portrait of Arsinoe, the queen of Egypt, on crystal.

Article

Selius  

4th century, male.

Active probably during the 4th century.

Mosaicist.

Ancient Roman.

Selius made a mosaic showing Diana Bathing with Two Nymphs, found in Timgad (Algeria).

Article

Martin Robertson

(fl c. 200 bc).

Ancient Greek mosaicist active in Egypt. His work is known from a signed floor at Tell Timai in the Nile Delta (now Alexandria, Gr.–Rom. Mus.), in which sophilos epoiei (Gk: ‘Sophilos made’) is set in two lines in black tesserae on a white floor. It appears to date to c. 200 bc or possibly a little before. At the edge of the rectangular floor is a frame of black crenellations; in the centre is an emblema in opus vermiculatum framed in isometric meander, with the inscription and a bust of a woman wearing a headdress in the form of a ship’s prow (see Alexandria §2, (iii)). This representation also appears in a circular emblema of coarser execution and apparently later date from the same site (now Alexandria, Gr.–Rom. Mus.). The figure has usually been interpreted as a personification of Alexandria, but Daszewski pointed out that figures that certainly represent the city are quite differently conceived and suggested that these are portraits of a Ptolemaic queen, probably Berenike II (...

Article

Greek, 20th century, male.

Active from 1959 in France.

Born 1931, in Alexandria, Egypt.

Painter, lithographer. Nudes.

Michel Vafiadis was a figurative intimist, painting pleasing nudes.

Vafiadis took part in various group exhibitions, including the Alexandria Biennale, 1952; Greek Painters in Paris ( Les peintres grecs à Paris...

Article

Diane Harris

( fl mid-1st century ad ).

Greek bronze sculptor, active in Rome and Gaul . His name (‘foreign gift’) suggests that he may have been born in Massalia (Marseille), Asia Minor, Egypt or Syria, and according to Pliny (Natural History XXXIV.xviii.46) he was the foremost sculptor of colossal statues of the 1st century ad. From ad 54 to 64 Zenodoros worked in Arvernis, Gaul, making a bronze statue of Mercury, for which he was paid 40 million sesterces. Nero commissioned him to make a colossal imperial portrait c. 36 m high, which was placed in his palace, the Domus Aurea in Rome (Pliny: XXXIV.xviii.45–6; Suetonius: Nero xxxi). During the reign of Vespasian ( ad 69–79) it was converted into a statue of the Sun god, Sol (Aelius Spartianicus: Hadrian XIX.xii; Herodian: I.xv.9; Pliny: XXXIV.xviii.45). A replica of the Mercury was known in Corinth in antiquity (Pausanias: Guide to Greece II.iii.4) and several extant copies may reflect the original appearance of the statue. The colossal statue of ...