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Article

Philippe Durey

(b Le Havre, June 21, 1750; d Paris, April 15, 1818).

French sculptor, draughtsman and engraver. He arrived in Paris in 1765 to become a pupil of Augustin Pajou. Although he never won the Prix de Rome, he appears to have travelled to Rome in the early 1770s. About 1780 or 1781 he was involved in the decoration of Claude-Nicolas Ledoux’s Hôtel Thélusson, Paris. From 1784 to 1785 he carried out work at the château of Compiègne, including the decoration of the Salle des Gardes, where his bas-reliefs illustrating the Battles of Alexander (in situ) pleasantly combine a Neo-classical clarity of composition with a virtuosity and animation that are still Rococo in spirit.

Beauvallet was approved (agréé) by the Académie Royale in 1789. During the French Revolution he was a passionate republican and presented plaster busts of Marat and of Chalier (1793–4; both destr.) to the Convention. He was briefly imprisoned after the fall of Robespierre in ...

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David M. Sokol

(b Philadelphia, PA, June 23, 1822; d Claymont, DE, March 27, 1888).

American illustrator and printmaker. After being exposed early to the Neo-classical style of John Flaxman, Darley began his career as an illustrator in Philadelphia in 1842. Following a sketching trip west of the Mississippi during the summer of that year, he produced outline drawings that were adapted into lithographs appearing in Scenes in Indian Life (1843). His early book illustrations were published in periodicals such as Democratic Review and Godey’s Magazine. Working in line drawing, lithography and wood- and steel-engraving, his first major success was his series of illustrations for John Frost’s Pictorial History of the United States (1844).

After moving to New York in 1848, Darley dominated the field of American illustration with his illustrations of Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper’s tales and novels. He produced about 500 illustrations for Cooper’s novels and a similar number for Benson J. Lossing’s Our Country (1875–7...

Article

James Yorke

[Mathias; Matthew]

(fl c. 1740–early 1770s).

English engraver, draughtsman and drawing-master. In 1748 his premises faced Old Slaughter’s Coffee House in St Martin’s Lane, London, a favourite meeting-place for adherents of the new Rococo style. His earliest known satirical print, the Cricket Players of Europe, is dated 1741.

In 1751 he issued A New-book of Chinese, Gothic & Modern Chairs, a slight publication on eight leaves. Twelve examples with bizarre backs were described as ‘Hall Chairs’ in a reissue of 1766, but it is more likely they were intended for gardens and summer-houses. A shell-back chair (Stratford-on-Avon, Nash’s House) corresponding to one of the designs was made for the Chinese temple erected at Stratford for the Shakespeare jubilee organized by David Garrick in 1769. Five plates from a second book of chairs (c. 1751), of which no copy survives, were apparently reprinted in Robert Manwaring’s The Chair-maker’s Guide (1766). Described as ‘Parlour Chairs’, they incorporate extravagant C-scroll motifs in the backs....

Article

Laure Pellicer

(b Montpellier, April 1, 1766; d Montpellier, March 16, 1837).

French painter, printmaker and collector. He was taught by the painter Jean Coustou (1719–91) in Montpellier before entering, in 1783, the studio of David, to whose artistic principles he remained faithful all his life. His career as a history painter began brilliantly when, in 1787, he won the Prix de Rome for Nebuchadnezzar Ordering the Execution of Zedekiah’s Children (Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.). This early success was consolidated by the four years he spent at the Académie de France in Rome and by the enthusiastic reception of his Death of Abel (1790; Montpellier, Mus. Fabre) at the Salon of 1791.

In 1793 his royalist sympathies forced him to move to Florence, where the poet Vittorio Alfieri and his mistress the Countess of Albany, estranged wife of the Young Pretender, introduced him to the artistic and social life of the city. In the years preceding the French invasion of Tuscany in ...

Article

Alexandra Herz

(b Venice, 1730; d Warsaw, ?1808).

Italian engraver. A student of the master engraver Marco Alvise Pitteri in Venice, and later of Lorenzo Zucchi in Dresden, he entered the service of the Margrave Friedrich at Bayreuth in 1760. There he engraved, among other things, a portrait of the Margrave painted by Francesco Pavona (1695–1777). In 1761 the Margrave named him a teacher at the Bayreuther Akademie, and soon after he sent him to Rome for further training under the guidance of Anton Raphael Mengs and Giovanni Battista Casanova, the latter a compatriot of Follin’s who had established a notable practice in Dresden. In Rome, Follin assisted in promoting the new theories of Neo-classicism being advanced by Winckelmann and Mengs. He quickly became acquainted with Winckelmann, who commissioned drawings and engravings of ancient sculpture from him. Follin also engraved a portrait of Winckelmann himself, painted by Casanova. The engraving (Hermanin and Lavagnino, p. 141) is Neo-classical in nearly every detail. Winckelmann is seen in profile, rising cameo-style from a concave oval framed by a broad band with rosettes at each corner. Follin and Casanova further classicized Winckelmann’s blunt features by endowing him with a mass of short curls reminiscent of an ancient conqueror or emperor. The idealized portrait head is cut just above the clavicle and placed so that the spectator looks up at the graceful curve of the bust. The depiction is clear and simple throughout; the engraver was nevertheless able to convey the different textures of flesh, hair and marble through his skilful engraving techniques. In ...

Article

Helen Weston

(b Dijon, Sept 24, 1756; d Florence, Aug 18, 1795).

French painter and engraver. He was one of the most important artists to emerge from François Devosge’s school of art in Dijon. His reputation, like that of his fellow Dijonnais artist Pierre-Paul Prud’hon, is based on a number of Neo-classical works of a pleasingly poetic character, which Devosge had encouraged. In 1776 he became the first artist from the Dijon art school to win the Prix de Rome with his painting of an uplifting moral subject, Manius Curius Dentatus Refusing the Presents of the Samnites (Nancy, Mus. B.-A.). The Dijon academy was very quickly recognized as one of the most important outside Paris. As a student there Gagneraux was directed towards examples from antiquity, the Italian Renaissance and the work of Poussin. During his four-year study period in Rome (1779–81) he worked on a copy (Dijon, Pal. Justice) of Raphael’s School of Athens (Rome, Vatican, Stanze Raffaello) to fulfil his obligation to the States of Burgundy which sponsored him. He spent most of his life in Italy, working in the company of Anton Raphael Mengs, Johan Tobias Sergel and Henry Fuseli in the 1770s and with Antonio Canova, Gavin Hamilton, Goethe and Jacques-Louis David in the 1780s. In ...

Article

Jorge Luján-Muñoz

(b Cádiz, ?1750; d Guatemala City, Sept 15, 1809).

Spanish engraver and architect, active in Guatemala. He studied in Cádiz around 1760, and in 1773 he moved to Madrid, where he was probably taught by the noted engraver Tomás Francisco Prieto (1726–82). In 1778 he was appointed assistant engraver of the Real Casa de Moneda in Guatemala, where he arrived the next year. Following the death of the principal engraver, he was confirmed in this post in 1783 and held it until his death. Besides his work as engraver of coin dies and medal stamps, Garci-Aguirre made numerous fine copperplate engravings for books (e.g. P. Ximena: Reales Exequias por el Señor Don Carlos III, Guatemala City, 1790) and other publications. In Guatemala he revived the art of engraving, working in the Neo-classical style, which he was one of the first to introduce to the country. He soon became involved with architectural works in connection with the building of the new capital of Guatemala City, first in the Real Casa de Moneda and then on other royal projects. From ...

Article

Kelly Donahue-Wallace

[Gil y Pérez, Gerónimo Antonio]

(b Zamora, Spain, Nov 3, 1731; d Mexico City, April 18, 1798).

Spanish printmaker, medallist, and type designer, active in Spain and Mexico. He was one of the first students at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de S Fernando in Madrid (founded 1752), which awarded him a pension to train as a medallist from 1754 to 1758 under Spain’s Engraver General, Tomás Francisco Prieto (1726–82). In 1760 the academy named Gil Académico de Mérito for his medal-engraving skills.

Upon completing his studies, Gil briefly served as drawing instructor at the S Fernando academy but worked principally making copperplate engravings, letter press type, and medals. He was a frequent contributor to luxury books sponsored by the Real Academia de Historia and the S Fernando academy, including the so-called prince’s edition of Don Quixote (1780) and Antigüedades árabes de España (1787). He spent more than 15 years designing type for the Real Biblioteca, and was credited by his peers with rescuing the Spanish type-making industry. The finest works he carried out in Spain included the engraved illustrations for ...

Article

Philippe Durey

In 

Article

Andrzej Rottermund

[Baptist]

(b Dresden, 1753; d Warsaw, Nov 25, 1795).

German draughtsman, engraver and architect, active in Poland. He studied under Friederich August Krubsacius at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Dresden (1771). In 1773 he arrived in Warsaw, where he entered the service of Stanislav II, King of Poland (reg 1764–95), as an architect. He worked under the supervision of Jakub Fontana (1710–73) and later of Domenico Merlini. From the beginning of his career he won fame as a talented illustrator of historical scenes, including the Election of Stanislav II (1775). Towards the end of the 1770s he designed furnishings for the White House at Łazienki as well as for the Royal Castle (both Warsaw), where he introduced some Neo-classical elements to Merlini’s plan for the Great Hall (from 1777. Around 1780 Kamsetzer designed the Bagatela Villa, Warsaw, for the Italian painter Marcello Bacciarelli. Its asymmetrical plan, with a tower in one corner, was widely imitated in Poland in the late 18th century and the early 19th....

Article

[Angelika ] (Catharina )

(b Chur, Graubünden, Oct 30, 1741; d Rome, Nov 5, 1807).

Swiss painter and etcher. She was a serious and prolific painter of portraits (see fig.) and one of relatively few women artists painting in the Neo-classical style to specialize in subject pictures as well. She attracted glittering and international patronage (the family of George III in Britain, Grand-Duke Paul and Prince Nikolay Yusupov in Russia, Stanislav II Poniatowski and Stanislav Kostka Potocki in Poland, Queen Caroline of Naples, and Emperor Joseph II of Austria) and was much admired by her fellow artists. In Rome she was accepted into the Accademia di S Luca at the precocious age of 23, and in London she was a founder-member of the Royal Academy and an invited participant in virtually every important public project involving painting, from the abortive scheme to decorate St Paul’s Cathedral to the decorations for the Royal Academy’s own rooms at Somerset House and John Boydell’s Shakespeare Gallery. The final tribute paid to Kauffman in Rome at her funeral, which was arranged by ...

Article

Alan Powers

(b Paris, March 19, 1715; d St Petersburg, March 24, 1759).

French painter, furniture designer, architect and engraver. He studied with Jacques Dumont and won the Grand Prix de Peinture in 1739. He remained for eight years in Rome, where his architectural designs for the temporary centrepiece of the annual Chinea festival (1745, 1746 and 1747) are early examples of Neo-classicism, displaying a simple architectonic use of the orders that indicates his association with Giovanni Battista Piranesi in the circle of students of the Académie de France in Rome, who were highly influential in French architecture from the 1760s onwards. On his return to Paris in 1747, Le Lorrain enjoyed the patronage of the Comte de Caylus, for whom he executed engravings of ancient paintings and revived the technique of encaustic. Through de Caylus he obtained a commission from Count Carl Gustav Tessin to design quadratura representations of columns and niches for the dining-room walls of his country house at Åkerö, Sweden, in ...

Article

Mónica Martí Cotarelo

(María)

(b Puebla, 1789; d Puebla, 1860).

Mexican architect, sculptor, painter, lithographer, and teacher. He was the leading figure in Puebla in the fields of architecture, sculpture, painting, and drawing during the early 19th century. He was director of the Academia de Dibujo in Puebla from its foundation in 1814 and the first recipient of a scholarship from the academy, which allowed him to go to Paris (1824–1827), where he studied architecture, drawing, and lithography. He also visited museums, factories, and prisons, intending to introduce French developments and systems into Puebla. On his return to Mexico he devoted himself to intense public activity, architectural reform, painting, lithography, and teaching, and experiments in industrialized production. Among his most important sculptural works is the completion (1819) of the ciprés (altarpiece with baldacchino) for Puebla Cathedral, which had been left unfinished on the death of Manuel Tolsá. It combines a high altar, a sepulchral monument, and a sanctuary of the Virgin, and it is one of the most spectacular examples of Mexican neoclassicism. From ...

Article

Vivian Atwater and Philippe Durey

French family of artists. Its most prominent members were (1) Pierre-Etienne Moitte, a late 18th-century engraver who worked after many contemporary artists, and his eldest son, (2) Jean-Guillaume Moitte, a sculptor and draughtsman in the Neo-classical style. Five of Pierre-Etienne’s other children became artists. François-Auguste Moitte (1748–90), Rose-Angélique Moitte and Elisabeth-Mélanie Moitte were engravers; Alexandre Moitte (1750–1828) became a painter, and Jean-Baptiste-Philibert Moitte (1754–1808) was an architect.

(b Paris, Jan 1, 1722; d Paris, Sept 4, 1780).

Engraver. He studied in Paris with Jacques-Firmin Beauvarlet and Pierre-François Beaumont (1719–?69). He was accepted (agréé) in 1771 by the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture and subsequently signed his prints ‘Graveur du Roi’. Between c. 1747 and 1754 he was one of the principal engravers commissioned to work for the Cabinet de S.E.M. Le Comte de Brühl, a collection published in Dresden in ...

Article

Ingrid Sattel Bernardini

[Maler Müller]

(b Kreuznach, Jan 13, 1749; d Rome, April 23, 1825).

German painter, engraver, draughtsman, poet and Playwright. From about 1765 he was taught by Daniel Hien (1724–73), court painter to Christian IV, Duke of Zweibrücken, with 17th-century Dutch painting as his model. Müller showed a talent for realistic depiction of animals, especially horses, and landscape, including farm scenes. The Duke gave him an allowance so that, from 1769, he was able to attend the Mannheim Akademie. Müller’s friendship there with Ferdinand Kobell and Franz Kobell (1749–1822) led to a considerable mutual influence in the work of all three. Müller also established himself as a poet at this time, becoming one of the representatives of the late 18th-century German literary movement known as Sturm und Drang. In the course of the 1770s Müller wrote a celebrated series of idylls, the lyric drama Niobe and the first parts of his Fausts Leben dramatisiert, all issued in editions with his own engraved illustrations. Life drawings and etchings from this period are in Mannheim (Städt. Reiss-Mus.), Frankfurt am Main (Goethemus.) and Monaco-Ville (Archvs Pal. Princier). At this time, however, Müller’s work as a poet and dramatist was more widely known and admired than his work as an artist. His study of the famous collection of casts of antique sculptures in the Antikensaal at Mannheim, and of paintings in the picture gallery belonging to the Elector ...

Article

(b Goyencourt, Nov 25, 1765; d Paris, Feb 13, 1840).

French designer, engraver and architect. He trained as an architect and in 1792 won the Grand Prix de Rome and travelled to Rome. He was responsible for thousands of engraved plates between 1800 and 1815, notably those for Charles Percier and Pierre-François-Léonard Fontaine’s Recueil de décorations intérieures (Paris, 1801), the seminal publication of the Empire style. Normand’s own designs in the Neo-classical style were published in his Décorations intérieures et extérieures (1803), on which he collaborated with the sculptor, Pierre-Nicolas Beauvallet; its 48 plates include designs for furniture, vases and ornaments.

Recueil varié de plans et de façades (Paris, 1815) Nouveau parallèle des ordres (Paris, 1819); Eng. trans. by A. Pugin (London, 1829); Ger. trans. by M. H. Jacobi and M. March, 2 vols (Potsdam, 1830–36) with M. Normand: Modèles d’orfèvrerie (Paris, 1822) Cours de dessin industriel (Paris, 1823, rev. 1841) Le Guide de l’ornemaniste (Paris, 1826, rev. 1847)...

Article

Athena S. E. Leoussi

(b Paris, Oct 17, 1786; d Paris, March 15, 1868).

French painter and lithographer. He was a pupil of François-André Vincent and of Jacques-Louis David. He received the Second Grand Prix de Rome in 1811 and then continued his studies in Rome. On his return from Italy he received the commission to paint the Death of Sapphira (1819) for the church of St Séverin in Paris (in situ) and at the Salon of 1819 he exhibited Love and Psyche (1817; Paris, Louvre), which was admired for its graceful and naive figures and was bought by the Duc d’Orléans (later Louis-Philippe, King of France). At the Salon of 1827 Picot exhibited the Annunciation (La Rochelle Cathedral), a richly painted work that shows the influence of Raphael. Working within the Neo-classical style, he specialized in history and genre subjects and portraits and continued to show at the Salon until 1839.

Picot received numerous commissions to decorate public buildings, including two ceiling decorations for the ...

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Vivian Atwater

In 

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[Eduardo ]

(b Saint-Quentin, Aisne, Dec 30, 1788; d Saint-Quentin, 1875).

French painter and lithographer, active in Mexico. He studied under David and Jean-Baptiste Regnault and established his reputation in Paris as a painter of portraits, genre scenes, and historical subjects. From 1850 to 1855 he lived and worked in Mexico City, exhibiting annually at the Academia de Bellas Artes. Although he produced outstanding portraits, for example of General Mariano Arista (1851; Mexico City, Mus. N. Hist.), his most important works in Mexico were costumbrista genre scenes, of which he produced a considerable number. He presented his figures, which he painted in a Neoclassical style, as representative of different social types in suitable settings, helping to establish the terms for such subject matter evolved by Agustín Arrieta and other 19th-century Mexican artists.

Obregón, G. Tipos y paisajes mexicanos del siglo XIX. Mexico City, 1976: 6–9.Ortíz Macedo, Luis. Edouard Pingret: Un pintor romántico francés que retrató el Mexico del mediar del siglo XIX...

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Jean-Dominique Augarde

(b Paris, 1732–6; d Paris, May 6, 1795).

French sculptor, bronze-caster, designer and engraver. He may have been trained by his cousin Jean-Joseph de Saint-Germain. Prieur was accepted as a sculptor in the Académie de Saint-Luc, Paris, in 1765 and became a master bronze-caster and chaser in 1769. In 1766 he collaborated with Victor Louis and Philippe Caffiéri (ii) on decorations for the Royal Castle, Warsaw, providing many designs (U. Warsaw, Lib.) for furniture and furnishing objects and executing some of them (examples in Warsaw, Royal Castle; Detroit, MI, Inst. A.; Paris, Mus. Nissim de Camondo). With Louis he also took part in the redecoration of the choir of Chartres Cathedral. In 1770, on the occasion of the marriage of the Dauphin (later Louis XVI) to Marie-Antoinette, he produced an exceptional clock on the theme of Peace and Abundance (St Petersburg, Hermitage) from a drawing by François Boucher. The clock on the theme of Vigilance (Paris, Louvre) dates from the same period. In ...