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Andrzej Rottermund

Polish architect and writer, also active in Italy. He probably studied in Rome in the late 1770s and returned to Italy in 1785–6 under the aegis of Stanisław Kostka Potocki, a collector and amateur architect with whom he collaborated throughout his life. In 1786 Aigner and Potocki refronted the church of St Anna, Warsaw, using a giant composite order on high pedestals. The political turmoil of the 1790s disrupted Aigner’s career, but during his second phase of creativity (...

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Pavel Zatloukal

Bohemian architect, active in Moravia. He studied at the Royal Professional Polytechnical Institute in Prague under Georg Fischer (1768–1828), in whose office he subsequently worked. During the 1820s he worked on two Bohemian estates of the Chotek family, becoming involved in the final stages of building their country house at Kačina (...

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Mario Bencivenni

Italian architect . He studied under Giuseppe Cacialli at the school of architecture of the Accademia di Belle Arti in Florence, which was directed by Gasparo Maria Paoletti, the leader of the Neo-classical architectural movement in Tuscany. In 1812 Baccani was awarded first prize for architecture in the Accademia’s prestigious triennial competition with a design for a prison, a project that already demonstrated the principal characteristic of Baccani’s work, his alternation between a Neo-classical vocabulary and a medieval, Romantic one. Indeed, his earliest executed works in Florence were the Gothic Revival tower (...

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Ye. A. Beletskaya

Russian architect. From his earliest childhood he lived in Moscow, where his father was a minor cleric in one of the Kremlin churches. He studied painting in Moscow under the important architect Dmitry Ukhtomsky, who accepted him into his school of architecture in 1751 and had him enrolled for classes in fine arts and languages at Moscow University in ...

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Darryl Patrick

American architect. There is evidence that Bond was trained by Solomon Willard. Certain of Bond’s designs suggest the Greek Revival approach that Willard brought from Washington, DC. Bond’s style moved between Gothic Revival and a Neo-classical heaviness. In the Salem City Hall of 1836–37 the two-storey Greek Revival façade shows his carefully proportioned details. An example of Gothic Revival is St John’s Episcopal Church and Rectory (...

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Italian architect and engineer. He studied in Pavia and then at the Politecnico in Turin, where he qualified as an engineer (1867). He also studied architecture under Camillo Boito at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera, Milan. Among his early designs were the classical octagonal marble fountain (...

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Spanish architect and politician. He graduated in 1855 from the new Escuela de Arquitectura, Madrid, which though separate from the Academia de Bellas Artes continued the latter’s pursuit of Italianate classical ideals. His principal teacher was Narciso Pascual y Colomer, whose style is reflected in Cubas’s early works. Cubas travelled in Italy and Greece on a Spanish government scholarship and on a second tour visited various European countries, including a longer stay in Munich....

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Patrick A. Snadon

American architect. From the 1830s to the 1850s he was one of the most influential architects in the USA. His work ranges from major government and institutional buildings to ornamental garden structures; his main contribution to American architecture was his introduction of the European Picturesque in his designs for Italianate and Gothic Revival country houses and cottages. With his partner, ...

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Paul Larmour

Irish architect. He is first recorded in 1813 as executant architect of the Church of Ireland St Mary’s, Newry, Co. Down. During the 1820s and 1830s he built up a formidable reputation as a designer of churches, country houses and public buildings, and he became one of the most important local architects working in Ulster. For a brief period he had a partnership with ...

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Catherine H. Cruft

Scottish architect. He was a successful Edinburgh architect with no formal education. He trained as a joiner and may have worked as a contractor for the building of Castle Mona (1801–6), Isle of Man, designed by George Steuart (c. 1730–1806) for the 4th Duke of ...

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Scottish architect. Gillespie added his wife’s surname of Graham to his own on his father-in-law’s death in 1825. In 1800 he was appointed to supervise work on the islands of Skye and North Uist, including schools, churches, piers, inns and a proposed new town at ...

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Catherine H. Cruft

Scottish architect. The son of William Hamilton, a mason, he was admitted to the Incorporation of Masons in Glasgow in 1800. Little is known of his early architectural training, although he may have been acquainted with Robert Adam (i) and James Adam (i) since he made many copies of their drawings at a time when they were virtually unknown. Hamilton developed a large practice, mainly confined to Glasgow and the west of Scotland. He showed a particular feeling for theatricality in his work, which is seen in his sometimes idiosyncratic employment of styles and the inclusion of carving and statues on his buildings. His earliest recorded building of note is the Neo-classical Hutcheson’s Hall (...

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Austrian architect and teacher. After training as a painter of architecture, he studied architecture itself at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna. He seems to have established contact with the Viennese court early in his career, since his first commission was to redesign the court theatre (from ...

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Malcolm Thurlby

Canadian architect of English birth. Born with the name John Corby, he was articled to the architect William Ford (fl 1820s) in London in 1824. In 1832 he moved to Canada, settling in Toronto, then still known as York, and changing his name to Howard. He was one of the first formally trained architects in the city and he became one of the busiest in Upper Canada in the 1830s and 1840s; he also held the post of Drawing Master at Upper Canada College (...

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Andrzej Rottermund

Polish architect and writer. He studied under Antoni Corazzi at the Faculty of Fine Arts of the University of Warsaw (1820–24). In 1824–7 he travelled to Italy, France, England and Germany. In Italy he was awarded membership of the Accademia del Disegno, Florence, for his restoration project for the Temple of Concord (ded. ...

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George Tibbits

Australian architect of English birth. His early experience was in London as a military surveyor and draughtsman in government service and then in private practice. He arrived in Sydney in March 1840 as an assistant surveyor in the office of the Surveyor-General of New South Wales, ...

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Alberto Villar Movellán

Spanish architect, urban planner and writer. He studied at the Escuela de Arquitectura, Barcelona, as a pupil of its founder, the Neo-classical architect Antonio Cellés y Azcona (1775–1835). Later he studied in Madrid, obtaining his degree in the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando in ...

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Jutta Schuchard

German architect. He trained (1811–15) at the Akademie in Munich under the Neo-classicist Karl von Fischer. His unsuccessful entry in the competition (1814–16) for the Walhalla in Bavaria was for a centralized building in quasi-Gothic style, although a Greek Doric peripteral temple had been requested. After visiting Italy (...

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Roberta J. M. Olson

Italian painter, architect, designer and collector. At the age of 12 he began to frequent the house in Bologna of his patron Conte Carlo Filippo Aldrovandi Marescotti (1763–1823), whose collections and library provided his early artistic education and engendered his taste for collecting. From ...

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Jean van Cleven

Belgian architect. He was the son of a carpenter; from 1803 he trained at the Academie voor Schone Kunsten in Ghent, where he was awarded a first prize in 1808. He went to Paris, where he worked in the important studio of Charles Percier(-Bassant) and ...