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Italian, 18th century, male.

Active in Cremona.

Engraver (etching), draughtsman.

No details are known of this acknowledged art lover and collector.

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Linda Whiteley

In 

Article

[Anhalt, Duke of]

(b Dessau, Aug 10, 1740; reg 1756–1817; d Dessau, Aug 9, 1817).

German ruler and garden designer. After leaving the Prussian Army in 1757, he devoted himself to governing Dessau, instituting provision for the poor, public health and education. He made four journeys to England (1763–85) with Friedrich Wilhelm Erdmannsdorff, with whom he also travelled through Italy (1765–6). He studied for six months with Johann Joachim Winckelmann, whose ‘mimetic theory of the Ancients’ he realized in his garden designs. With Erdmannsdorff and his planters, he created gardens at Luisium (1774) and Sieglitzer Berg (1777) and most notably at Wörlitz (1764–1810), based on such English models as The Leasowes (Worcs), Stowe (Bucks), Kew Gardens (London) and Stourhead (Wilts). He was acquainted with William Chambers, Henry Holland, Sir William Hamilton (i) and possibly also Henry Flitcroft and ‘Capability’ Brown. As well as introducing the English landscape garden and Palladian country house to the Continent, the Prince also transplanted the Gothic Revival. The ‘Country House’ and ‘Gothic House’ at ...

Article

German, 17th – 18th century, male.

Born 1633; died 1714.

Engraver.

This prince was in turn a considerable novelist, a poet and a large-scale art collector. On becoming regent in 1685, he spent much time building up the Brunswick painting gallery until it was really quite outstanding. A small number of plates are attributed to him. It is thought that he was given technical advice by Prince Rupert of the Palatinate....

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Vincent Lieber

(b Geneva, May 18, 1668; d Geneva, May 25, 1743).

Swiss miniature painter and collector, active in France. He is said to have shown precocious signs of great talent. In 1688 he established himself in Paris as a miniature painter; his talent secured him the protection of such patrons as Philippe II, Duc d’Orléans and later Regent of France, and his mother, Elisabeth-Charlotte, Duchesse d’Orléans. Arlaud advised the Duc d’Orléans on the purchase of paintings from the collection of Christina, Queen of Sweden. Later, he himself acquired various works of considerable quality, eventually building up an interesting collection. As he was in contact with Hyacinthe Rigaud and Nicolas de Largillierre, his style naturally reflected their manner, as well as the prevailing taste. He generally executed miniatures in gouache, such as Madame de la Baume (Geneva, Mus. Horlogerie & Emaillerie), sometimes adding highlights in pastels, as in the case of his Self-portrait (1727; Florence, Uffizi). This technique, which was a novelty when Arlaud adopted it, has unfortunately aged badly, and the effect achieved, which was much appreciated at the time, has since become blurred. Arlaud was received at the English court in ...

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Michelle Lespes

[Camelot]

(b Douai, Jan 12, 1702; d Paris, March 4, 1766).

French painter and collector . His father, Jean-Baptiste Havet, a doctor of Armenian origin, died when Aved was a child. He was brought up in Amsterdam by his step-father, a captain in the Dutch Guards. At 16 he is said to have become a pedlar or ‘camelot’ (hence the nickname given to him by his French acquaintances) travelling through the Netherlands, drawing portraits at fairs. In 1721, after spending short periods in the Amsterdam studios of the French engraver Bernard Picart and of the draughtsman François Boitard (1652–1722), he left the Netherlands to work in the Paris studio of the fashionable portrait painter Alexis-Simon Belle. At this time he met other notable painters including Carle Vanloo and the portrait painters Maurice-Quentin de La Tour, Jean-Baptiste Perroneau and Jean-Etienne Liotard. He also formed a deep and lasting friendship with Jean-Siméon Chardin, with whom he may have collaborated on occasion; they used similar techniques, and he may have encouraged Chardin to turn from still-life painting to figure painting in the 1730s....

Article

[Dazaincourt]

(b Paris, June 6, 1719; d Paris, May 31, 1794).

French patron, collector, amateur engraver and soldier . He was the only son of the collector Augustin Blondel de Gagny and joined the army at 15, being awarded the Croix de St Louis in 1745. He retired from the army in 1753, having married a great heiress, Catherine Edmée de la Haye des Fosses; they divided their time between hôtels particuliers in the Rue de Vendôme and the Rue Nazareth, Paris, and an elegant château at Bonneuil. Azincourt was an honorary member of the Académie Royale in Paris and the academy of Marseille. In 1776 he helped to arrange the acquisition by the Maison du Roi of the Cabinet de l’Amour from the Hôtel Lambert, Paris. In La Première Idée de la curiosité (1749), he described the principles of collecting and offered advice on display. His eclectic collection ranged from Italian, Northern European and French works to curiosities of natural history. After ...

Article

[Simon-René]

(b Paris, Dec 11, 1715; d Paris, 1797).

French soldier, amateur printmaker and collector. He was sometimes called ‘Comte’, probably an assumed title. He was raised by his grandfather Jean Baudouin des Pacauds (d 1722), a tobacco merchant and collector of maps and mathematical instruments, whose wealth he inherited. In 1736 Baudouin joined a regiment of the Gardes Françaises as a gentilhomme à drapeau. He was an amateur printmaker of limited technical skill; in 1757 he published L’Exercice de l’infanterie française, a book of 62 prints. He presented it to Louis XV and was rewarded with 20,000 francs. The book was republished in 1759, with the plates re-engraved by Augustin de Saint-Aubin. Baudouin was a considerable collector, particularly of Dutch and Flemish paintings, which served as models for many of his prints. In 1779 he sold 115 paintings from his collection to Catherine the Great, having had copies made of 92 of them. Many of the works he sold, including ...

Article

British, 18th century, male.

Active in London during the first half of the 18th century.

Engraver (aquatint).

Thomas Beard's portraits, engraved after P. Ashton and Godfrey Kneller, are highly rated by collectors.

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David Blayney Brown

(Howland)

(b Great Dunmow, Essex, Nov 6, 1753; d Coleorton, Leics, Feb 7, 1827).

Amateur painter and draughtsman, collector and patron. He was the quintessential amateur, whose interests extended to literature and drama as well as to art; he became the leading arbiter of taste of his day. The painter Thomas Hearne described him as the ‘supreme dictator on works of art’. While Beaumont strongly supported new trends in poetry and did much to foster the careers of William Wordsworth and Samuel Coleridge, he maintained essentially 18th-century standards in his connoisseurship. His love of art had begun at Eton College, where he was taught drawing by Alexander Cozens; it was confirmed in 1771 by a meeting with the engraver William Woollett and Hearne, then Woollett’s pupil. Subsequently Beaumont was guided by a succession of distinguished artists including John Robert Cozens, Joshua Reynolds, Thomas Gainsborough, Richard Wilson, Thomas Jones, Joseph Farington, Benjamin West, Thomas Girtin and John Constable. His own work, of which there is a large collection in the ...

Article

British, 18th century, male.

Born 1723, in London; died 1765, in Copenhagen.

Engraver.

Carl Bertram was a collector. Nagler says that he personally engraved the frontispiece of the book he had published at his own expense: A History of the Ancient Painters of the British People...

Article

Bi Long  

Chinese, 18th century, male.

Active during the reign of the Qing Emperor Qianlong (1736-1796).

Born in Taicang (Jiangsu).

Painter.

Bi Long was a painter of bamboos and landscapes and a disciple of Cao Zhibo. He was also a poet and a famous collector of calligraphy and paintings....

Article

(b Toulouse, 1766; d Paris, 1826).

French dealer, restorer and painter. He may have begun his career as a protégé of Henri-Auguste de Chalvet, a collector and Associate Member of the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Toulouse. His first teachers were Pierre Rivalz and Lambert-François-Thérèse Cammas. He moved to Paris shortly before the French Revolution but went almost immediately to London, where he established himself as a portrait painter, exhibiting at the Royal Academy in 1794 and 1795. He returned to Paris in 1796 and that year sent three portraits to the Salon. In 1799, he exhibited the curiously Romantic Girl Surprised by a Storm (New York, Brooklyn Mus.). The following year he achieved popular success with Woman of Property Begging (England, priv. col.). His talents as a portrait painter were particularly admired: surviving examples are Adrien Segond (1812; Paris, Louvre) and Dieudonné Jeanroy (1812; U. Paris V, Fac. Médec.). His style of painting reflected contemporary admiration for highly finished works in the manner of 17th-century Dutch artists....

Article

Dutch, 18th century, male.

Born 1713, in Amsterdam; died 31 January 1785.

Painter, draughtsman. Landscapes.

Johannes de Bosch was the son of the apothecary and art collector Jeronimo de Bosch. He was a friend of Jan Huysum, Jakob de Wit and Isaac Moucheron. After his death, his works were sold in Amsterdam on ...

Article

L. Fornari Schianchi

(b Arcisate di Como, 1727; d Parma, Nov 4, 1792).

Italian stuccoist, printmaker, painter and collector. Before studying anything else he learned stucco decoration from his father Pietro Luigi (d 1754), who worked in Germany from 1743 until his death. Stucco work always remained Bossi’s main activity, alongside that of printmaking, especially etching. His experiments in the latter field followed in the tradition of the great Venetian printmakers. He was encouraged by Charles-François Hutin, who was in Dresden from 1753 to 1757 and whom he followed to Milan and Parma. His first etching, based on a work by Bartolomeo Nazari (1693–1758), was done in Milan in 1758. From 1759 on he was in Parma, where he produced some plates for the Iconologie tirée de divers auteurs (1759) by Jean-Baptiste Boudard, and where he executed the stucco trophy decoration for the attic of S Pietro, the construction of which began in 1761. From this date Bossi also collaborated with the designer ...

Article

Simonetta Prosperi Valenti Rodinò

(b Busto Arsizio, Nov 11, 1777; d Milan, Dec 15, 1815).

Italian painter, collector and writer. He studied painting at the Accademia di Brera in Milan. Between 1785 and 1801 he lived in Rome, where he met such Neo-classical artists as Angelica Kauffman and Marianna Dionigi (1756–1826) as well as writers, scholars and archaeologists, notably Jean-Baptiste Séroux d’Agincourt, Giovanni Gherardo de Rossi (1754–1827) and Ennio Quirino Visconti. While in Rome he studied Antique and Renaissance works, making copies of the statues in the Museo Pio-Clementino and the frescoes by Raphael and Michelangelo in the Vatican, also furthering his studies of the nude in the Accademia di Domenico Conti and making anatomical drawings of corpses in the Ospedale della Consolazione. On his return to Milan in 1801 he became secretary to the Accademia di Brera, a post he held until 1807. During this period he devoted all his efforts to the restructuring of the Brera, providing it with new statutes and a major library and also founding the adjoining art gallery. He prevented numerous works from being smuggled abroad or dispersed and was responsible for their inclusion in the ...

Article

Anne Thackray

(b Bourges; d Paris, 1715).

French collector, patron and amateur draughtsman. A member of the Bourges family that included the great Jesuit preacher Father Louis de Bourdaloue, Claude de Bourdaloue built up a collection in Paris (mostly untraced), which Germain Brice, who gives no specific details, knew to include a hoard of paintings and drawings by famous masters, a large collection of rare prints and a considerable number of antique engraved gems. Bourdaloue also owned Rubens’s manuscript Pocketbook on art, which he had purchased from Roger de Piles; after his death it was acquired by André-Charles Boulle, but was badly damaged in a fire in 1720 in Boulle’s studio in the Louvre, Paris (fragments and partial transcripts survive). De Piles recorded that the Pocketbook included Rubens’s observations on optics, chiaroscuro, proportion, anatomy and architecture as well as extracts from poetry concerning human passions, with illustrations copied from ‘the best masters’, principally Raphael. Bourdaloue is known to have commissioned drawings (untraced) from ...

Article

Giles Waterfield

(b London, 1756; d London, Jan 7, 1811).

English painter and art collector of Swiss descent. Born to a family of Swiss watchmakers in London, Bourgeois was apprenticed as a boy to P. J. de Loutherbourg. The latter heavily influenced his art, which was to elevate him to membership of the Royal Academy in 1793. Bourgeois specialized in landscape and genre scenes and achieved recognition in his own day with works such as Tiger Hunt and William Tell (both c. 1790; London, Dulwich Pict. Gal.), but his works are no longer regarded as of any note.

Bourgeois was linked from an early age with Noël Desenfans, who in effect adopted him when his father left London for Switzerland. Desenfans promoted Bourgeois’s reputation as an artist and involved him in his own activities as a picture dealer. Bourgeois became passionately interested in buying paintings, and in the last 15 years of his life bought considerable numbers, sometimes creating financial problems for the partnership. His taste was characteristic of the traditional Grand Manner of his time, concentrating on the great names of the 16th and 17th centuries, particularly academic works and paintings of the Netherlandish schools....

Article

Dutch, 18th century, male.

Born 22 January 1701, in Amsterdam; died 1781, in Amsterdam.

Draughtsman, engraver, collector.

Article

Seymour Howard

(b Rome, ?1716; d Rome, Dec 9, 1799).

Italian sculptor, restorer, dealer, collector and antiquary. He lived and worked all his life in the artists’ quarter of Rome. He was apprenticed to the French sculptor Pierre-Etienne Monnot from c. 1729 to 1733, and by 1732 had become a prize-winning student at the Accademia di S Luca. From the early 1730s he appears to have worked for Cardinal Alessandro Albani on his collections of antiquities, renovating sculptures with Carlo Antonio Napolioni (1675–1742).

In 1733 Clement XII bought most of Albani’s earlier holdings of antique sculpture in order to prevent their sale and export to the court of Augustus the Strong in Dresden. He housed them in the Museo Capitolino, Rome, where Cavaceppi worked as a principal restorer, with Napolioni and his nephew Clemente Bianchi, under the direction of Marchese Gregorio Capponi and Cardinal Giovan Petro Lucatelli, until the end of the papacy (1740–58) of Benedict XIV. By mid-century, after renovating Early Christian antiquities in the Lateran, Cavaceppi’s reputation extended beyond Italy and with the aid of Albani he had become an independent dealer. He was in great demand among the major collectors and agents of central Europe and England—including ...