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Çigdem Kafesçioglu and Walter B. Denny

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John Ford

[Rudolf]

(b Stollberg, Saxony, April 20, 1764; d Finchley, London, March 30, 1834).

English publisher and patron of German birth. He trained as a carriage designer in Paris and moved to England between 1783 and 1786. He established his own business as a carriage maker, undertaking major commissions in London and Dublin. In 1804 he designed Pius VII’s carriage for the coronation of Napoleon and in 1805 the funeral carriage of Horatio, Viscount Nelson. By 1800 Ackermann had built up a unique business at 101 The Strand, London, known as ‘The Repository of Arts’. This encompassed a drawing school with 80 pupils, the sale and loan of Old Master paintings and watercolour drawings, the publication of decorative prints and illustrated books and the manufacture of watercolour paints including a number of new chemical pigments.

In the early 19th century, Ackermann was an important and regular patron of English watercolour painters, employing William Henry Pyne, Augustus Charles Pugin, Thomas Heaphy, Frederick Mackenzie (1787–1854...

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Çigdem Kafesçioglu and Walter B. Denny

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Italian, 18th century, male.

Active in Cremona.

Engraver (etching), draughtsman.

No details are known of this acknowledged art lover and collector.

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Marianne Barrucand

[‛Alawī; Filālī]

Islamic dynasty and rulers of Morocco since 1631. Like their predecessors the Sa‛dis, the ‛Alawis are sharīfs (descendants of the Prophet Muhammad), and both dynasties are sometimes classed together as the ‘Sharifs of Morocco’. From a base in the Tafilalt region of south-east Morocco, the ‛Alawi family was able to overcome the centrifugal forces exerted by the Berber tribes who had destroyed the Sa‛di state in the first half of the 17th century. To restore political authority and territorial integrity, Mawlay Isma‛il (reg 1672–1727) added a new black slave corps to the traditional tribal army. Although royal power was weak during the 19th century and the early 20th, when the French and Spanish established protectorates, the ‛Alawis’ power was fully restored after independence from the French in 1956.

‛Alawi building activities (see Islamic art, §II, 7(v)) were concentrated in the four cities that have served as their capitals: Fez and Marrakesh at various times from ...

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Marcus Burke

[Alvárez de Toledo] [now Berwick y Alba]

Spanish family of politicians and collectors. The prominent role of the Alvárez de Toledo family in the history of Spain and the dynastic marriages that have joined many other titles into the house of Berwick y Alba have placed the Alba collection among the finest in Europe. Don Fernando Alvárez de Toledo (1507–82), the ‘Gran-Duque’ de Alba, Governor of the Netherlands (from 1567), commissioned paintings from Anthonis Mor and Titian (General Pardon Conceded to Flanders by the Duque de Alba; Christ in the House of Martha; portrait of Don Fernando Alvárez de Toledo, Duque de Alba, in Armour; all Madrid, Pal. Liria, Col. Duke of Alba). His namesake, Don Fernando Alvárez de Toledo, the 6th duke, returned to Spain in 1653 from an embassy in Italy with a large shipment of works of art. The family collection, which included an impressive holding of tapestries, was housed in the palace of La Abadia in Extremadura and at the former ducal seat in Alba de Tormes....

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Howard Colvin

(b Westminster, London, Jan 1647 or 1648; d Oxford, Dec 14, 1710).

English architect and scholar. The son of Henry Aldrich, later auditor to James, Duke of York, he was educated at Westminster School, London, and at Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated as a BA in 1666 and an MA in 1669. He remained in Oxford for the rest of his life, becoming in 1682 a canon of Christ Church and in 1689 Dean of the College and Cathedral. From 1692 to 1695 he served as Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University.

Aldrich was a highly accomplished man who was well known for his learning in many fields. He edited Greek and Latin texts, wrote a standard book on logic, and also published works on mathematics, music and architecture. He had a large library that included books on antiquities and many architectural and other engravings. He left his library to Christ Church, where it remains, but directed that all his personal papers were to be destroyed. As a result, relatively little is known about his architectural interests and activities. However, there is reason to think that he had visited France and Italy, and he was certainly regarded by contemporaries as an authority on architectural matters. He was himself an excellent draughtsman and made the drawings for the allegorical engravings that decorate the Oxford almanacks for ...

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Olivier Bonfait and François Quiviger

[Aldovrandi]

Italian family of patrons. The Aldrovandi were one of the oldest patrician families in Bologna and were prominent in the city’s civic life from at least the 12th century. Giovanni Francesco Aldrovandi (d 1512) was ambassador to Rome and Ferrara, a poet and patron of literature. According to Vasari, Michelangelo stayed in Aldrovandi’s palazzo in 1494–5 (see Michelangelo §I 1., (i)). The most renowned family member was (1) Ulisse Aldrovandi, the naturalist and antiquarian. Conte Filippo Aldrovandi commissioned paintings from Guercino, such as the Portrait of a Dog (c. 1625; Pasadena, CA, Norton Simon Mus.), and fresco decorations in the Villa Giovannina, near Cento. The earliest inventory of the family collection (1644) lists 72 items; by c. 1690 this had grown to 293. Pompeo Aldrovandi (1668–1752), who was made a cardinal in 1734, began rebuilding the family palazzo (now the Palazzo Montanari) in ...

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(b Venice, Dec 11, 1712; d Pisa, May 12, 1764).

Italian patron, collector and writer. The second son of a wealthy Venetian merchant, he was educated in Bologna, where he studied under the eminent scientists Eustachio Manfredi and the Zanotti brothers. Afterwards he travelled in the Veneto and developed a particular admiration for the works of Veronese, Guido Reni and Andrea Palladio. In Florence in 1733 he was impressed by the art of Titian and Fra Bartolommeo. He then spent a year in Rome, where the ancient monuments and paintings by the Caracci and Domenichino had a considerable impact on him. There, too, he made the acquaintance of the scholar and antiquarian Giovanni Gaetano Bottari. A period in Paris led to contacts with Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis, an early champion of Newton’s principles, and with Voltaire and the collectors Pierre Crozat and Pierre-Jean Mariette. Then in England in 1736 he was a social success; during this visit Jonathan Richardson made two portrait drawings of him (London, V&A). After a further stay in Paris, with Voltaire, he spent a year in Milan and Venice and published a popular exposition on Newton’s discoveries in optics, ...

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José Fernandes Pereira

(b Lisbon, 1670; d Lisbon, 1754).

Portuguese ecclesiastic and patron. He was a member of the aristocratic Avintes family. He received a university education, and in the reign of Peter II held office from 1705 as Secretary of State and High Chancellor of the kingdom. He was appointed Bishop of Lamego in 1707 and of Oporto in 1709. In Oporto he revived an earlier plan of 1691 to construct a square, 120×120 m, which was intended to rival the Plaza Mayor in Madrid. However, with the end of the conflict between Spain and Portugal (the War of Succession) and his nomination as the first Patriarch of Lisbon in 1717, this ambitious project was abandoned. In his new appointment, which was created at the personal request of John V, Dom Tomás built a summer residence at Santo Antão do Tojal, Loures, near Lisbon, whose architect from 1727 to 1732 was the Italian Antonio Canevari. The scheme is a remarkable urban complex, which is both theatrical and rhetorical in style. An earlier church attached to the palace was restored and the façade redesigned, with statues of Carrara marble, reflecting Roman Baroque architecture. An aqueduct, also designed by Canevari, leads to an elaborate fountain, topped by a typical Joanine arch, set in the middle of one of the palace façades, which contains a suite of apartments for the King. This wing, together with another belonging to an earlier 16th-century palace that was then enlarged, surrounds a public square of irregular shape....