Variety of chalcedony, a semi-transparent quartz, of a deep dull red, flesh, or reddish white colour. It has been carved since the time of the ancient Egyptians, for whom supplies were available as pebbles that could be collected in the Eastern desert.M. M. Bullard and others: ‘Lorenzo de’ Medici’s Acquisition of the Sigillo di Nerone’, ...
[Egyp. kheper; Lat. scarabacus sacer]
Most common form of ancient Egyptian stamp seal from the Middle Kingdom (c. 2008–c. 1630
Large ‘heart-scarabs’, mostly of basalt or serpentine, were a common component of Egyptian funerary equipment (see fig.; see also Egypt, ancient, §XII, 3, (vi)). ‘Heart-scarabs’ were generally placed in mummy-wrappings or mounted on the pectoral; they were often inscribed with the 30th chapter of the Book of the Dead (a collection of funerary spells). Scarabs were also very common at sites in Syria–Palestine under Egyptian influence....