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Article

Flemish, 16th century, male.

Active in Amsterdam in 1553.

Died 1575.

Painter, draughtsman. Architectural views, church interiors.

Flemish School.

Hendrick Aerts painted and decorated church interiors, one of which was engraved by J. Londerseel.

London, 1 Dec 1978: Interior of an Imaginary Cathedral during a Procession...

Article

German, 16th century, male.

Born 1502, in Paderborn (Westphalia); died c. 1558, in Soest.

Painter, designer of ornamental architectural features, engraver. Religious subjects, portraits.

Some biographers cite Heinrich Aldegrever's birthplace as the town of Paderborn, Germany, where his parents lived, while others claim it as Soest. He certainly lived in Soest after having completed his studies. In his study of the 'Little Masters' (so called because they engraved mostly small plates), Albert Rosemberg disputes that he studied under Dürer. Rosemburg even claims that he had never been to Nuremberg, despite van Melder's confirmation that Aldegrever worked at the high altar of a church in the town. It is indisputable, however, that Dürer strongly influenced him. Other artists who influenced him are Barthel Beham and Georg Pencz....

Article

German, 16th century, male.

Born c. 1480, in Altdorf, in Regensburg according to some sources; died 1538, in Regensburg.

Painter, watercolourist, engraver, draughtsman, architect. Religious subjects, mythological subjects, hunting scenes, landscapes, landscapes with figures.

Danube School.

Albrecht Altdorfer could be considered as important an artist as Dürer. He probably acquired basic artistic skills while working with his father Ulbrich, who is known to have became a burgher of Regensburg in 1478. Albrecht is also believed to have studied the art of miniature painting. Almost all of his artistic activity took place in Regensburg where he worked from 1508 in various official capacities, playing an active role in the public life of the town. In 1526 he was nominated as the town's architect and directed building works on the ramparts and slaughterhouses. He also became a member of the town council....

Article

Flemish School, 16th century, male.

Born 1550, in Antwerp or in Breda; died 1584, in Rome.

Painter, draughtsman. Religious subjects, hunting scenes, landscapes, urban landscapes, architectural views. Frescoes.

This artist was probably the son of Mattheus Bril the Elder and the older brother of Paul Bril. He must have been very young when he went to Italy, since there is no trace of his name in Antwerp or any other town in the Netherlands. Bril appears to have gained a considerable reputation in Italy, and is cited as the painter of several frescoes in the Vatican, where he was commissioned to decorate two rooms. For the Sala del Consistorio he painted four pictures of ...

Article

Spanish, 16th century, male.

Born 1538, in Cordova; died 28 July 1608, in Cordova.

Painter, sculptor, architect. Religious subjects, portraits.

School of Cordova.

Pablo de Céspedes initially studied theology, then Oriental languages. He began painting during a trip to Rome, under the direction of one of Michelangelo's pupils. While he was in Rome he painted a number of frescoes in various chapels, which were so successful that he was nicknamed the 'Spanish Raphael'. He was offered a canonicate in his home town and returned to Cordova in 1575 or 1577, before settling there permanently after a second trip to Rome in 1583. It was there that he painted his ...

Article

Cimabue  

Italian, 13th century, male.

Born between 1240 and 1250, in Florence; died 1302, in Pisa.

Painter, fresco artist, architect. Religious subjects.

Tuscan School, Florentine School.

We can only take Vasari's word for it that Cimabue was born in 1240, but the date seems plausible. He is known to have been in Rome in ...

Article

Flemish School, 16th century, male.

Born 1525, in Antwerp; died 1589.

Painter, watercolourist, engraver, draughtsman. Religious subjects, landscapes, urban landscapes, architectural views, seascapes.

Antwerp School.

He was a pupil of his father, Willem, and of Frans Floris. He went to Italy to work from nature, and when he returned to Antwerp in 1551, became a Master of the Guild. He married in Antwerp on 2 July 1555 and had two sons who were both painters, Gillis and Hans. He painted the landscapes of paintings by Frans Floris and by his brother, Marten....

Article

Flemish School, 16th century, male.

Born 1507, in Antwerp, in 1527 according to some sources; died 1557, in 1581 according to some sources.

Draughtsman, engraver, designer of ornamental architectural features. Religious subjects, genre scenes, scenes with figures, rustic scenes, local scenes (kermesses).

Antwerp School.

He was the brother of Hendrick van Cleve III. A pupil of his father, Willem, and Frans Floris, he became a Master of the Antwerp Guild in ...

Article

French, 16th century, male.

Born 1510, probably in Paris; died after 1584, in Annecy or in Geneva.

Draughtsman, engraver. Religious subjects, mythological subjects, architectural views, interiors. Ornaments.

Fontainebleau School (related to).

Du Cerceau's parents' surname was Androuet; the name Du Cerceau came from a distinctive ring that hung from the top of their house in Orléans, and was added to his surname by Jacques Androuet himself. He spent most of his life in Orléans, where he lived in the family home. Many of his works are dated. Certain biographers maintain that he studied under Étienne Delaulne, but the similarity between his work and the work of Léonard Thiry implies that he trained at Thiry's school. He visited Italy with George d'Armagnac, Francis I's ambassador to the Venetian Republic. On his return, in 1546 or 1547, he won sponsors in the royal family and in the nobility. He is believed to have retired to Switzerland and the Savoie region of France. A Protestant, he suffered persecution, and requested leave from the King....

Article

Giotto  

Italian, 13th – 14th century, male.

Born 1266/1267, in Colle di Vespignano (Tuscany); died 8 January 1337, in Florence.

Painter, fresco artist, architect. Religious subjects.

Florentine School.

Giotto is regarded by most to be the founder of the central tradition of Western painting. His work broke away from the stylisations of Byzantine art, introduced new ideals of naturalism, and created a convincing sense of pictorial space and drama. Giotto was duly recognised by his contemporaries, who imitated him and memorialised him in literary sources, and by later generations of artists....

Article

Flemish, 16th century, male.

Painter. Religious subjects, architectural views.

Flemish School.

Lowigs Heme was a pupil of Pieter Ulrich in Courtrai. Van Mander deems him one of the best painters of that town.

Article

Italian, 14th century, male.

Born 1297, in Prato Vecchio or in Arezzo; died before 1358, in Prato Vecchio.

Painter, architect. Religious subjects.

Jacopo Landini belonged to the family of Cristoforo Landino and was a pupil of Taddeo Gaddi. He followed his teacher to Florence in ...

Article

Flemish School, 16th century, male.

Active also active in Germany and in the Netherlands.

Born 1506, in Liège; died August (or April) 1566, in Liège.

Painter. Religious subjects, portraits, architectural views. Murals.

Liège School.

Lombard's first master was Jean Demouse, and he may also have studied with Arnold de Beer in Antwerp. He was appointed a master painter in ...

Article

Austrian, 15th century, male.

Active in Viennac.1430.

Painter. Religious subjects.

Working in Vienna, he continued the tradition of painting in the monumental style until around 1430. The arrangement of the architectural elements in his work follows and emphasises the forms of the figures. His rendering of volume and space remains simple. It is thought that the Master of Lichtenstein Castle came from his workshop....

Article

Italian, 14th century, male.

Died 1365.

Painter, fresco artist, sculptor, architect. Religious subjects.

Nardo di Cione was probably the father of Mariotto di Nardo, and definitely the elder brother of Orcagna Andrea di Cione. He is mentioned in Florence, where he worked with his brother on the Strozzi chapel in the church of S Maria Novella, executing scenes on ...

Article

Italian, 15th century, male.

Born 1461, in Siena; died 1496, in Siena.

Painter, fresco artist. Religious subjects, architectural views.

Pietro de Francesco degli Orioli's body of work was frequently confused with that of Giacomo Pacchiarotto, but certain receipts have since been recovered which have helped to set the record straight. These include records of payment received by him for work on a fresco entitled ...

Article

Italian, 15th century, male.

Born c. 1450, in Cremona.

Painter, designer of ornamental architectural features. Religious subjects.

Lombard School.

Ricca painted religious subjects for churches in Cremona.

Article

German, 15th century, male.

Born c. 1468; died 1504.

Painter. Religious subjects, portraits, still-lifes, architectural views.

Lübeck School.

Together with that of Bernt Notke, Hermen Rode's work typifies the vigour of the Lübeck School in the latter half of the 15th century. Both artists collaborated closely with various sculptors (Notke was himself a sculptor), a process that imparted a certain unity to their altar work. Whereas Notke is expressive to the point of caricature (a feature of Germanic art of the time), Rode painted in almost the opposite manner, creating a sense of intimacy and inner intensity. The figures in his painted work are introverts portrayed against day-to-day backgrounds, where familiar objects are arranged on pieces of furniture with all the precision and gravitas of still-life compositions. Towards ...

Article

Dutch, 16th century, male.

Born c. 1550, possibly in Steenwyk (Overyssel); died 1603, in Frankfurt am Main.

Painter. Religious subjects, architectural views, church interiors, urban landscapes.

A pupil of Hans Vredeman de Vries, who praised his work highly, Van Steenwyk made a particular study of perspective and architecture, and would later produce justifiably famous landmark paintings....

Article

Flemish School, 16th century, male.

Active in Italy.

Born 1523, in Bruges; died 2 November 1605, in Florence.

Painter, draughtsman, illustrator. Religious subjects, allegorical subjects, mythological subjects, genre scenes, landscapes, architectural views. Murals, designs for tapestries.

Antwerp School.

A pupil of Pieter Aertsen in Antwerp, Van der Straet was a guild master at Antwerp in 1545 and worked in Lyons for Corneille de la Haye. He then went to Venice and Florence, where he worked for the Medici family and met Vasari. John of Austria summoned him to Naples, and he then returned to Florence. He is thought to have returned to Flanders around 1576-1578....