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Article

Anna Nilsén

[Albertus Pictor]

(fl c. 1460; d after 1509).

Painter and textile designer, active in Sweden. He was probably of German origin. He married in 1473 and was a burgher of Stockholm, where he ran a workshop for liturgical embroidery. Apparently well-to-do, during the years 1501–7 he paid a higher tax than any other painter in Stockholm. About this time he also seems to have delivered an altarpiece to the Brigittine convent of Naantali (Swed. Nådendal) in Finland. He is last mentioned in 1509, when he played an instrument, probably the organ, at the Corpus Christi Guild of Stockholm.

Albert thus had many talents, but his main field must have been wall painting. His earliest works are in Södermanland and include the signed wall paintings in the church at Lid, where he also painted his self-portrait. It has been conjectured that Albert may have been an apprentice of a Master Peter, whose existence is deduced from a presumed signature in the church at Ösmo, but this theory is very tenuous. About 35 churches with paintings by Albert or his workshop are known in the provinces of Södermanland, Västmanland and Uppland. Some of the best-preserved paintings are in the churches at Floda (Södermanland), Kumla (Västmanland), Härkeberga, Härnevi, Almunge and Odensala (Uppland)....

Article

Italian, 15th century, male.

Active in Naples in the middle of the 15th century.

Painter, embroiderer.

In 1472, Antonello di Capua executed chamber paintings for King Alphonse I. The following year he carried out work for the Duchess of Termoli.

Article

Flemish, 15th century, male.

Active in Arrasc.1419.

Painter. Designs for carpets.

Flemish School.

Baudouin Bailleul carried out the painting work in the council chamber of the ducal palace at Arras. A painter of the same name supplied Philip the Good with carpet patterns in ...

Article

Scot McKendrick

(fl Arras, 1419–64).

Burgundian painter and tapestry designer. He was a wealthy member of the Arras bourgeoisie and seems to have been a very successful artist. His first recorded work was the painting of mainly heraldic devices in memory of John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy, at the abbey of St Vaast in 1419. The work was undertaken in such a short time and for a sufficiently large payment that he has been considered the head of an important workshop. In 1426 he was again paid for heraldic painting at Arras, and in 1454 he shared with Jacques Daret the supervision of the painting by Robert de Moncheaux (fl 1454–68) of the tomb of the abbot of St Vaast, Jean du Clercq (untraced).

Bauduin is best known for his execution of the designs for a set of tapestries of the History of Gideon (destr. 1794), considered the most outstanding tapestries owned by ...

Article

French, 16th century, male.

Born in Toulouse.

Draughtsman. Patterns (embroidery).

Celle lived in Italy towards the middle of the 16th century. He designed patterns for embroidery and is only known through an undated quarto volume containing 25 sheets and 54 linen and embroidery patterns. The title (19 lines) states ...

Article

French, 16th century, male.

Born c. 1530, probably in Paris; died after 1590.

Painter, draughtsman, embroiderer.

School of Lyons.

Pierre was the son of Jacob Eskrich, a native of Freiburg-im-Brisgau and engraver who worked in Paris in the first quarter of the 16th century and whose real name seems to have been Krug ('jug' in German, hence his nickname). Pierre Eskrich must have arrived in Lyons in about ...

Article

Danielle B. Joyner

From the time John Cassian established the first female foundation in Marseille in ad 410, monastic women lived in varying states of enclosure and were surrounded by diverse images and objects that contributed to their devotion, education and livelihood. The first rule for women, written in 512 by St Caesarius of Arles, emphasized their strict separation from men and the world, as did the Periculoso, a directive issued by Pope Boniface VIII (reg 1294–1303) in 1298. Various architectural solutions developed throughout the Middle Ages to reconcile the necessities of enclosure with the access required by male clerics to celebrate Mass and provide pastoral care. Nuns’ choirs, where the women would gather for their daily prayers, were often constructed as discreet spaces in the church, which allowed women to hear or see the Mass without interacting with the cleric, as in the 10th-century choir in the eastern transept gallery at St Cyriakus in Gernrode, Germany. In some Cistercian examples, the nuns’ choir appeared at the west end of the nave. Dominican and Franciscan architecture was largely varied. Double monasteries, which housed men and women, also required careful construction. A 7th-century text describing the church of St Brigida in ...

Article

Italian, 15th – 16th century, female.

Born 1448, in Genoa; died 1534.

Painter.

Tommasina del Fiesco was also an embroiderer. She took holy orders after the death of her husband, first entering the convent of S Maria delle Grazie and later that of SS Giacomo e Filippo. A number of her small pictures on parchment are in the convent of S Silvestro....

Article

Italian, 15th century, male.

Active in Naples.

Died c. 1450.

Painter, sculptor.

Giovanni da Napoli was a Dominican monk. He was also an embroiderer and did embroidery for the Roman Curia.

Article

Polish, 16th century, male.

Painter, embroiderer.

Litwinek became master of the guild in 1599.

Article

Patrick M. de Winter

(b ?nr Liège, c. 1410; d Aix-en-Provence, c. 1476).

Embroiderer and painter. Possibly in the circle of Jan van Eyck, he was apparently active at the Burgundian court in the early 1430s. It was perhaps in Dijon, while a prisoner there in 1435–6, that René, Duke of Anjou, engaged him; Pierre is documented in Naples with René in 1440. The artist’s first wife was Ydria Exters ‘d’Allemagne’ (d 1460), a widow and the mother of Barthélemy d’Eyck, presumably René’s chief painter. In 1444 Pierre du Billant painted a chariot for René’s daughter Margaret (1430–82) for her engagement to Henry VI, King of England, and in 1445 he received the substantial payment of 404 livres ‘pour ouvraiges de broderies faits à Tours’. In 1447 he painted on canvas a St Mary Magdalene (untraced), which René sent to his wife. Pierre headed a workshop in which his principal assistant is identified as Jean Gaultier. In 1448 he received 173 livres for unspecified works. In ...

Article

Louise S. Milne

[Jean de Bruxelles]

(fl 1498–1521).

South Netherlandish painter and designer of tapestry cartoons, stained-glass windows, and sculpture. He is first documented in 1498, as a Brother of Our Lady of the Seven Sorrows, and later became court painter at Mechelen and Brussels to Margaret of Austria, Regent of the Spanish Netherlands. Jan’s widely imitated tapestry designs, filled with graceful, melancholic figures set in a mixture of Late Gothic and Renaissance architecture, helped to create a uniform style in Brussels tapestries in the first quarter of the 16th century. The basis for attributing tapestries to Jan, or his workshop, is the documented series of the Story of Herkinbald (Brussels, Musées Royaux A. & Hist.), which was made for the Confraternity of the Holy Sacrament at Leuven and for the design for which Jan was paid 2.5 Rhenish guilders and some wine in 1513. His collaborators were the painter ‘Philips’ [Maître Phillipe] and the weaver ‘...

Article

French, 15th century, male.

Painter, embroiderer.

Pierre de Villant was in the service of King René of Anjou.