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Article

Ray McKenzie

(b Chesterfield, Derbys, 1822; d Cannes, Feb 25, 1898).

English photographer. He is noted for his studies of the Middle East and for establishing the largest photographic publishing firm in the 19th century. He was born into a Quaker family and spent five unrewarding years apprenticed to a cutler in Sheffield, suffering a nervous breakdown in 1843. After two years recuperative travel he became a successful businessman, first in wholesale groceries and later in printing. His involvement with photography began at this time. He was one of the founder-members of the Liverpool Photographic Society in 1853 and he exhibited portraits and landscapes to much critical acclaim.

The sale of Frith’s printing firm in 1854 financed the expeditions to Egypt and the Holy Land that were to establish his pre-eminence among early travel photographers. He made three trips between 1856 and 1860 (see fig.). On the first, he sailed up the Nile to the Second Cataract, recording the main historic monuments between Cairo and Abu Simbel. On the second, he struck eastwards to Palestine, visiting Jerusalem, Damascus and other sites associated with the life of Christ. The final expedition was the most ambitious, combining a second visit to the Holy Land with a deeper southward penetration of the Nile. His photographs of the temple at ...

Article

South African, 21st century, male.

Born 29 October 1976, in Johannesburg.

Photojournalist, documentary photographer. Portraiture, landscape, social groups.

Pieter Hugo worked in the film industry until 1999, when he started freelancing as an editorial photographer. After publishing in Colors, an influential photo magazine, Hugo in ...

Article

S. J. Vernoit

(b Mostaganem, March 14, 1930; d Mostaganem, 1991).

Algerian painter. A self-taught artist, he worked in France initially as a printer but later came to occupy a central position in the development of modern Algerian painting. He developed an abstract style of painting in the artistic milieu of Paris, exhibiting work at the Jeune Peintre exhibition in Paris in 1955, and at the Salon de Réalités Nouvelles in 1955, 1957 and 1958. On returning to Algeria in the early 1960s he devoted himself to painting, engraving and producing designs for the theatre, and in the following years he exhibited work in Europe, Japan, the Middle East, Russia and the USA. His paintings explore calligraphic compositions and motifs of Arab–Berber origin and display a sophisticated use of colour. Such oil paintings as Kabylie (1.14×1.62 m, 1960; Paris, Inst. Monde Arab.) and Olive Tree Mediterranean (1.16×0.89 m, 1977; see 1978 exh. cat.) were inspired by his experience of landscape. His works are in numerous collections, including the Musée d’Art Moderne, Paris, and the Musée National des Beaux-Arts, Algiers....

Article

Congolese, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active since 1989 active in France.

Born 19 December 1964, in Pointe Noire.

Painter (mixed media), draughtsman. Scenes with figures, figures.

Gatien Mabounga learned from his father, who was a printer and bookbinder, how to work with leather. In 1984...

Article

Gilbert Herbert

(Distin)

(b Queenstown, Cape Province, Feb 26, 1905; d Pretoria, Aug 23, 1942).

South African architect and writer. He was appointed lecturer at the University of the Witwatersrand and an editor of the South African Architectural Record in 1932, both under G. E. Pearse’s tolerant tutelage. For the next decade he dominated the School of Architecture and the journal, using them as levers to bring about an architectural revolution, which swept South Africa into the mainstream of the Modern Movement. He was the principal motivator of the small revolutionary cadre, and, with Gordon McIntosh and Norman Hanson, stood at the heart of that band of enthusiasts that Le Corbusier dubbed the ‘Transvaal Group’. Martienssen’s writing, a heady mixture of erudition and passionate advocacy, articulated the philosophy and provided the informational data base; his teaching enlightened and inflamed the younger generation. His friendship with Le Corbusier gave status and legitimization to the geographically and culturally isolated group.

Martienssen was a talented designer, but not a compulsive architect. His few buildings should be considered as teaching exemplars, which demonstrate an architectural point, rather than as the productive continuum of architectural practice. His short-lived association with ...