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Çigdem Kafesçioglu and Walter B. Denny

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Çigdem Kafesçioglu and Walter B. Denny

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Marianne Barrucand

[‛Alawī; Filālī]

Islamic dynasty and rulers of Morocco since 1631. Like their predecessors the Sa‛dis, the ‛Alawis are sharīfs (descendants of the Prophet Muhammad), and both dynasties are sometimes classed together as the ‘Sharifs of Morocco’. From a base in the Tafilalt region of south-east Morocco, the ‛Alawi family was able to overcome the centrifugal forces exerted by the Berber tribes who had destroyed the Sa‛di state in the first half of the 17th century. To restore political authority and territorial integrity, Mawlay Isma‛il (reg 1672–1727) added a new black slave corps to the traditional tribal army. Although royal power was weak during the 19th century and the early 20th, when the French and Spanish established protectorates, the ‛Alawis’ power was fully restored after independence from the French in 1956.

‛Alawi building activities (see Islamic art, §II, 7(v)) were concentrated in the four cities that have served as their capitals: Fez and Marrakesh at various times from ...

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Çigdem Kafesçioglu and Walter B. Denny

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(b Givry, nr Chalon-sur-Saône, Jan 4, 1747; d Paris, April 28, 1825).

French museum director, writer, graphic artist, collector, archaeologist and diplomat. He was the son of a provincial aristocrat. He went to Paris to further his law studies c. 1765 but entered the studio of Noël Hallé. He became Gentleman-in-Ordinary to Louis XV and was appointed keeper of the collection of engraved gems and medals that Mme de Pompadour had left to the King. In 1772 he entered the diplomatic service as attaché to the French embassy at St Petersburg, he was subsequently posted to Stockholm, Geneva (where his disrespectful engraving Repast at Ferney, of 4 July 1775, angered Voltaire) and, from spring 1776, Naples. There he became acquainted with Sir William Hamilton, the British ambassador, and made many drawings of his future wife Emma. Denon began to acquire a diverse collection of paintings and engravings as well as antiquities from excavations at Nola, Catania, Agrigento, Pompeii and Herculaneum. He purchased the painting of the ...

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Çigdem Kafesçioglu and Walter B. Denny

In 

Article

Çigdem Kafesçioglu and Walter B. Denny

In 

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Çigdem Kafesçioglu and Walter B. Denny

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Kevin Mulhearn

(Mbouombou)

(b Foumban, c. 1870; d Yaoundé, June 1933).

Cameroonian ruler, patron of the arts, and artistic innovator. King Ibrahim Mbouombou Njoya was the 17th ruler of the Kingdom of Bamum in the Grassfields region of Cameroon, which dated back to the 14th century. King Njoya came to power at a young age following the death of his father King Nsagnu in battle. Nominally ruling from c. 1887 until his death, his power was limited before the mid-1890s and after 1924, when the kingdom was abolished by the French. He died in exile, banished from the kingdom to the colonial capital Yaoundé in 1931.

King Njoya’s reign coincided with an era of growing European colonial involvement in the region, first by Germany and later by Great Britain and France, and he undertook complex relations with colonial powers, striving to safeguard his kingdom and preserve his influence. With this political aim at the forefront, he initiated a variety of ambitious and forward-thinking cultural projects, which drew on and creatively combined a wide range of local and global forms. He was remarkable for his ability to assimilate new ideas and refashion them for use by his court and kingdom....

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Çigdem Kafesçioglu and Walter B. Denny

[Osmanlı]

Islamic dynasty that began to rule in Anatolia in 1281; at its greatest extent in the 16th century the Ottoman empire also included the Balkans, the Crimea, Iraq, Syria, the Hijaz, Egypt and North Africa. It lasted until the promulgation of the Constitution of the Turkish Republic in 1924.

Çigdem Kafesçioglu

The Ottomans claimed descent from the eponymous Osman (‛Uthman), a Turkish ruler active in north-west Anatolia at the end of the 13th century and beginning of the 14th. His small emirate grew at the expense of the declining state of the Saljuqs of Anatolia ( see Saljuq family, §2 ). Ideologically based on the concept of religious warfare (Turk. gaza, from Arab. ghazw), the state expanded rapidly to the west over Byzantine territory in Thrace and the Balkans, and to the east over the Turkish principalities of Anatolia ( see Beylik ). The first major expansion took place under Osman’s son Orhan (...

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Janet Southorn

(b Darmstadt, April 9, 1850; d London, May 21, 1912).

British industrialist, collector and philanthropist of German birth. He was educated in Frankfurt and in 1871 he went to South Africa, where he worked in the diamond mining industry. With Alfred Beit, elder brother of Sir Otto Beit, he founded what became the Central Mining and Investment Corporation, and he became a British citizen in 1898. Wernher was a generous benefactor of hospitals and educational institutions. He was created baronet in 1905.

In addition to his London home, Bath House (destr. c. 1960) in Piccadilly, Wernher acquired in 1903 Luton Hoo in Bedfordshire, rebuilt in the 1760s by Robert Adam for John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute. He commissioned alterations to both houses in the then fashionable French 18th-century style of interior decoration, creating an ornate background for the display of his collection of European art. Of his acquisitions, the pictures alone numbered 250; they included Joshua Reynolds’s portrait of ...