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Article

Egyptian, 20th century, female.

Active in Lebanon.

Born 1945, in Alexandria.

Painter, graphic designer, illustrator. Figure compositions, figures.

Mouna Bassili Sehnaoui studied for two years at the American University in Beirut, Lebanon, and completed her higher education at the University of Arizona in Tucson where she was awarded a diploma in graphic art and painting. She also won the first prize at the university's exhibition of students' works in ...

Article

Tunisian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 16 January 1947, in Tunis.

Illustrator, caricaturist, painter.

Belkhamsa Chedli spent two brief periods at the schools of fine art in Tunis and Paris. He works mostly for Tunisian newspapers and magazines. In 1983, he was awarded first prize for his cartoons by the association of Tunisian journalists. As well as his work as a cartoonist, he has also painted acrylics on canvas, works that display considerable care, precision and elegance. The themes of these paintings are taken from the world of fantasy, and are painted in cartoon style....

Article

Algerian, 20th century, male.

Active in France since 1953.

Born 1931, in Mestghanem.

Painter, engraver, illustrator, painter (gouache), watercolourist. Designs for tapestries.

Abdallah Benanteur began his artistic studies at the school of fine art in Oran, completing them at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière in Paris. He settled in Paris in 1953. From 1972 to 1976, he taught in the architecture department of the École des Beaux-Arts and at the École des Arts Décoratifs in Paris....

Article

Egyptian, 20th century, male.

Born 1940, in Cairo.

Painter, watercolourist, illustrator, decorative artist. Decorative motifs. Stage costumes and sets, designs for jewellery.

A pupil at the Académie Julian, the École des Arts Decoratifs and the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, Georges Doche went on to show his work in several public exhibitions and, in particular, at the Salon des Artistes Indépendants in Paris, as well as at several private galleries in Geneva, Tokyo and London. He had a number of solo exhibitions, including in Paris (...

Article

Tunisian, 20th century, male.

Active also active in France.

Born 1918, in Jakarta, Indonesia.

Painter, illustrator, draughtsman. Cartoon films.

Hatem El Mekki was born in Indonesia but moved to Tunisia in 1924. He started to exhibit his works at the Salon Tunisien in 1934. In ...

Article

Moroccan, 20th – 21st century, female.

Active in France.

Born 1950, in Casablanca.

Painter, sculptor, sculptor of assemblages, draughtswoman, illustrator.

Sylvia Elharar-Lemberg studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris and at the art teachers training college in Tel Aviv. Her paintings and drawings create the effect of transparency and obliteration, often starting from the square design of a tetragram. She also creates assemblages, such as mysterious grills, iron rods placed alongside labels and photographic plates. Sylvia Elharar-Lemberg has shown at group exhibitions in France since ...

Article

Algerian, 20th century, female.

Born in Bordj-Bou-Arreridj.

Painter, illustrator. Narrative scenes.

Aïcha Haddad was a pupil at the school of fine arts in Algiers and later taught design. She is a member of the national union of fine arts and the general union of Arab painters. She has participated in many group exhibitions since ...

Article

Algerian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in Belgium from 1979, naturalised in 1990.

Born 22 April 1952, in Kabylia (Bejaïa).

Painter, illustrator, musician. Local scenes.

Born in the Kabylia region in Algeria, Boubeker was also a storyteller and singer. He paints the everyday life of shepherds, camel herders, women going about their work in the home and garden, creating compositions full of narrative detail with a feel of childlike poetry. Hamsi began exhibiting his paintings in ...

Article

Algerian, 20th century, male.

Born 17 June 1928, in Azeffouri; died 1 December 1985, in Algiers.

Painter, illustrator. Local figures.

Issiakhem studied at the school of fine arts in Algiers between 1948 and 1952, where his teacher was the miniaturist Mohamed Racim, before completing his artistic education at the school of fine arts in Paris ...

Article

Algerian, 20th century, male.

Born 14 March 1930, in Mostghanem; died 1991.

Painter, watercolourist, illustrator, engraver. Stage sets.

Mohamed Khadda, a self-taught painter, was a communist who wrote the theoretical treatise Component of a New Art ( Élément pour un art nouveau) on Algerian painting. Although Kadda's art has its basis in the abstract, he by no means renounces all contact with nature, which underpins all his landscape paintings. Unexpected signs, inspired by Arab-Berber symbols, invest his canvases with violence and emotion. By trade a typographer, Khadda took great pleasure in devising a form of abstract calligraphy that he constantly renewed. This technique is at its most unashamedly exuberant in his painting ...

Article

Michael Curschmann

The medieval term mappa mundi (also forma mundi, historia/istoire) covers a broad array of maps of the world of which roughly 1100 survive. These have resisted systematic classification, but the clearly dominant type is one that aims at comprehensively symbolistic representation. Its early, schematic form is a disc composed of three continents surrounded and separated from one another by water (“T-O Map”) and associated with the three sons of Noah: Asia (Shem) occupies all of the upper half, Europe (Japhet) to the left and Africa (Ham) to the right share the lower half. Quadripartite cartographic schemes included the antipodes as a fourth continent, but the tripartite model was adopted by the large majority of the more developed world maps in use from the 11th century on and—with important variations—well into the Renaissance. While details were added as available space permitted, the Mediterranean continued to serve as the vertical axis and, with diminishing clarity, the rivers Don and Nile as the horizontal one. The map also continues to be ‘oriented’ towards Asia, where paradise sits at the very top. A circular ocean forms the perimeter and not infrequently the city of Jerusalem constitutes its centre....

Article

Tunisian, 20th century, male.

Active in France since 1962.

Born 15 December 1917, in Tunis.

Painter, illustrator. Murals.

Nouvelle Figuration, Figuration Narrative.

Edgard Naccache, a self-taught artist, started painting in 1931. In 1948 and 1961, he travelled in France; in 1957 he stayed in the Netherlands and the following year in Italy. He was a founding member of the ...

Article

(b Nimo, April 30, 1933).

Nigerian painter, sculptor, illustrator and poet. After attending Bishop Shanahan Secondary School, Orlu (1950–53), he received a degree in Fine Arts from the Nigerian College of Arts, Science and Technology, Zaria (1957–61). In 1958 he founded the Asele Institute in Kafanchan for research in Nigerian art and culture. In the 1960s he was a member of the Ibadan Mbari Club, and a few years later formed the Enugu branch of Mbari that became a centre for artists of the Eastern region. His interest in Nigerian visual culture, especially that of his own Ibgo people, was most evident in his attention to and use of uli patterns (see Africa §V 3.) in his works, such as Oja Suite (1962; Nimo, Asele Inst.). He employed these organic, gestural lines to depict Igbo folktales as well as to produce the later Munich Suite (1963) during his travels in Germany. He was a founding member of the Zaria Art Society, which sought to create a Nigerian artistic expression based on a synthesis of indigenous and foreign art traditions. In ...

Article

Togolese, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 4 October 1973, in Lomé.

Painter, illustrator.

Jope Koffi Quaye constantly explores his roots and the past, striving to make his art into a universal language. Characteristic of his work are dark figures which he places against a background of scraped light colours, adding a beak or paws to give them sense. He has exhibited in a number of group shows, including ...

Article

Algerian, 20th century, male.

Born 24 June 1896, in Algiers; died 1 April 1975, murdered.

Painter, miniaturist, illustrator. Scenes with figures.

Orientalism.

Mohamed Racim was born to a family of successful engravers. He received early training from his father and at the age of 14 he joined the Cabinet de Dessin de l'Enseignement Professionel in Algiers. In 1917 he won a scholarship from the Casa Valasquez to visit Spain, Paris and London. Here he honed his technique in the manuscripts department of the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris and at the Iranian studies section in London. Having met the celebrated orientalist painter Etienne Dinet in 1914, he was asked to produce the frontispieces for his ...

Article

Egyptian, 20th century, male.

Born 1926, in Paris.

Painter, illustrator. Wall decorations.

Samir Rafi won the national award for fine arts in Cairo with his composition Time. In 1946, he formed the Contemporary Art association, with the aim of returning to specifically Egyptian inspiration and breaking away from the School of Paris. In ...

Article

Egyptian, 20th century, male.

Born 1939, in Abnoub El-Hamam.

Painter, watercolourist, illustrator. Figure compositions, figures, animals, landscapes, nudes.

Adli Rizkallah seems to have lived in Paris between 1973 and 1978, before returning to Cairo. His figure compositions are highly elliptical, especially the watercolours; a light outline containing a finely moulded volume is used to indicate human forms and the sparse elements of the setting. Since ...

Article

Algerian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1947, in Sfizef.

Painter, engraver, illustrator.

Ali Silem studied at the school of fine arts in Algiers. In 1979, he participated in the execution of a collaborative fresco in Algiers and of sets and costumes for theatrical productions. He has exhibited in Algeria in collective events since ...

Article

Algerian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in France since 1981.

Born 1951, in Tibane.

Painter, illustrator.

Hamid Tibouchi obtained a degree in English at the École Normale Supérieure in Algiers, then a diploma in fine arts from the University of Paris VIII. He plays with the textures of his media (jute canvas, silk, Japanese paper) to produce materials that are both thick and translucent, through which run signs evocative of Arabic calligraphy. He has produced art books and a large number of illustrations and has written some poetry collections....

Article

Chika Okeke

(b Onitsha, June 4, 1946).

Nigerian painter, graphic artist, illustrator and poet. After studying at Central Art School, Onitsha, and Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (1965–6), he received his BA (1972) and MFA (1977) from the University of Nigeria, Nsukka, where he studied with Uche Okeke. He worked as a commercial artist and graphic designer for the Ministry of Agriculture, Enugu, and the Ministry of Information, Aba. Among his many honours are the Department of Fine Arts Prize (University of Nigeria, Nsukka), the T. A. Fasuyi Prize for painting, the Commercial Art Cup, the Shell d’Arcy Cup for painting, and the 1990 Association of Nigerian Authors Cadbury Poetry Prize. His interest in artistic communities was a major factor in the foundation of the AKA Circle of Exhibiting Artists (1986). The Biafran Civil War (1967–70) greatly impacted his life and art. At that time he abandoned mimetic naturalism as a style, turning instead to the linear forms and symbols of ...