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Article

Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time.

Astrology developed into a scientific branch of learning in ancient Greece, but because of the opposition of the Church Fathers it was transmitted to early medieval Europe in only fragmentary form in technically unsophisticated textbooks and popular divinatory genres. Literary and scientific texts provided more general ideas about the nature and attributes of the planets which were influential on later iconography. The first significant astrological images appear in 11th-century illustrated astronomical texts (e.g. London, BL, Cotton MS. Tiberius BV), which were acquired and produced by monasteries to aid with time-keeping and the construction of the Christian calendar....

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 30 January 1782, in Bordeaux; died 21 February 1863, in Paris.

Painter (including gouache), engraver, lithographer, illustrator. Historical subjects, mythological subjects, genre scenes, architectural interiors. Wall decorations, low reliefs.

Studied initially in Bordeaux under Pierre Lacour the Elder, then became a pupil of Vincent and David. He exhibited on a regular basis at Salons between ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Active in the USA.

Born 15 March 1883, in Stuttgart; died 29 May 1972, in New York.

Painter, sculptor, graphic designer, poster artist, illustrator, architect, designer, decorative artist. Designs for carpets, advertising art, furniture, lamps, wallpaper.

Jugendstil.

Deutscher Werkbund.

Lucian Bernhard studied painting at the Kunstakademie in Munich, but taught himself design. He was active in Berlin. In ...

Article

Danielle B. Joyner

From the time John Cassian established the first female foundation in Marseille in ad 410, monastic women lived in varying states of enclosure and were surrounded by diverse images and objects that contributed to their devotion, education and livelihood. The first rule for women, written in 512 by St Caesarius of Arles, emphasized their strict separation from men and the world, as did the Periculoso, a directive issued by Pope Boniface VIII (reg 1294–1303) in 1298. Various architectural solutions developed throughout the Middle Ages to reconcile the necessities of enclosure with the access required by male clerics to celebrate Mass and provide pastoral care. Nuns’ choirs, where the women would gather for their daily prayers, were often constructed as discreet spaces in the church, which allowed women to hear or see the Mass without interacting with the cleric, as in the 10th-century choir in the eastern transept gallery at St Cyriakus in Gernrode, Germany. In some Cistercian examples, the nuns’ choir appeared at the west end of the nave. Dominican and Franciscan architecture was largely varied. Double monasteries, which housed men and women, also required careful construction. A 7th-century text describing the church of St Brigida in ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 16 May 1872, in Münster; died 5 April 1943, in Baierbrunn (Upper Bavaria), in Munich according to other sources.

Architect, painter, draughtsman, illustrator, engraver, sculptor, interior designer, graphic designer. Portraits, landscapes with figures, landscapes, portraits. Stage sets, designs (furniture).

Jugendstil, Art Deco...

Article

Portuguese, 19th century, male.

Active in the USA.

Born 9 April 1852, in Lisbon.

Painter, sculptor, illustrator, architect, decorative artist.

Newton Wells studied in Syracuse, New York, and then in Paris under B. Constant and J.P. Laurens. He was subsequently active in Chicago, where he painted frescoes for public buildings....