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Oscar P. Fitzgerald

Technique for imitating Asian Lacquer. Once Dutch and Portuguese traders imported lacquer ware from the Far East after 1700, Europeans became fascinated by this technique. Originating in ancient China, it spread to Japan where it is still practiced in the 21st century. The process involved the application of up to a hundred coats of lacquer produced from the sap of the ...


Joan H. O’Mara

Japanese paintings or woodblock prints depicting famous poets and poetesses often accompanied by the inscription of their names, with or without additional biographical information, and representative verses. By integrating calligraphy, poetry and painting in a single format, kasen’e (‘pictures of poetic immortals’) illustrate well the close interrelationship between these three art forms....



Shirley Millidge

Instrument made from a reed, quill or metal-tipped equivalent, generally used with Ink for writing (see Script) or drawing (see Drawing, §III, 2, (i)). In East Asia brush pens are used (see China, People’s Republic of, §XIV, 4, and Japan, §VII, 1, (ii)...