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Article

Ainu  

Hans Dieter Ölschleger

[Emishi; Ezo; Mishihase]

Peoples who once lived in northern Japan and are now restricted to the islands of Hokkaido (Japan), southern Sakhalin and the Kuril chain. The Ainu live in an area that has been influenced by Chinese, Siberian and especially Japanese culture. Until the 17th century, when the Ainu began to practise small-scale agriculture in south-western Hokkaido, they subsisted by fishing and hunter–gathering. Although the gradual Japanese colonization of Hokkaido had almost eradicated Ainu culture by the early 20th century, the post-war period has witnessed a revival of Ainu culture and language.

Ainu art is characterized by the preponderance of geometric designs. Some have parallels in Japan proper, while others show similarities with motifs found in the art of the Gilyaks, their northern neighbours on Sakhalin, of the Ostyaks and Samoyeds of northern Siberia and even of the peoples of the north-west coast of North America. Human and animal motifs are extremely rare and restricted to the decoration of libation ...

Article

Japanese, 20th century, male.

Active also in France and Germany.

Born 1937, in Hiroshima.

Sculptor. Monuments.

In Tokyo, Hiromi Akiyama studied painting from 1954 to 1957, then sculpture until 1961. In 1966 he went to Paris, where he attended the École des Beaux-Arts until 1968...

Article

Japanese, 20th century, male.

Born 1889, in Ibaragi; died 13 May 1970.

Sculptor.

Jiro Amenomiya studied at the Tokyo School of Fine Arts, where he graduated in 1923 and was awarded a prize. He was vice president of the Japan Sculptors Association.

1918, Cultural Department, Tokyo...

Article

Japanese, 20th–21st century, male.

Born 1947.

Sculptor.

At the end of the 1980s, Yasuhiko Ando spent a long time in Stuttgart, Germany. During this same period he exhibited in Paris at the Salon Grands et Jeunes d’Aujourd’hui. His sculptures follow a horizontal plan, mingling abstract or metaphorical elements with precise representations, such as figures....

Article

Japanese, 20th century, male.

Born 1933, in Tokyo.

Sculptor.

Kinetic Art.

Hiroshi Aoki studied fine arts at Musashino University, Tokyo. He displayed his works in solo exhibitions in Tokyo in 1966 and 1967.

Article

Arnige  

Ian Alsop and Kashinath Tamot

[Chin. Anige; A-ni-ke; A-ni-ko; Nepalese: Arnike]

(b c. 1244; d c. 1306).

Nepalese sculptor, architect, and painter who worked in Tibet and China. A Newar from the Kathmandu Valley, Anige is now honoured in his native land as Nepal’s most famous artist of early times. He left his home at the age of 17 or 18, joining the myriads of wandering Newar artists who served the courts of the great lamas and emperors of Tibet and China. He so impressed his patrons at the court of the Mongol Yuan dynasty (1279–1368) that he eventually rose to a position of prominence as the director of the imperial workshops at the capital of Dadu, now Beijing.

No trace of Anige’s life and works has survived in Nepal, but this is not surprising given the dearth of historical records (as is the case throughout the Indian subcontinent), and the fact that artists were generally anonymous. Further, as Anige left the valley at a young age, his artistic distinction was almost entirely achieved in foreign lands....

Article

Japanese, 20th century, male.

Born 1883, in Oita; died 1964.

Sculptor. Animals.

Fumio Asakura studied at the Tokyo School of Fine Arts and later taught there for 24 years. In 1924 he was appointed to the Imperial Academy of Art and in 1948 was awarded the Order of Cultural Merit....

Article

Japanese, 20th century, male.

Born 1925, in Tokyo.

Sculptor. Portraits.

Kyoko Asakura was the son and pupil of Fumio Asakura. He exhibited at the Nitten , where he received three honourable mentions, as well as at the Tokyo Biennale and with Group 30 .

Article

Midori Yoshimoto

(Aiko)

(b Norwalk, CA, Jan 24, 1926; d San Francisco, CA, Aug 5, 2013).

American sculptor, painter and draftsman. Asawa was born the fourth of seven children to Japanese immigrants and her childhood on a thriving truck farm formed her work ethic. During World War II, the Asawas were separated into different internment camps. At the Rohwer Relocation Center in Arkansas, Ruth was able to learn drawing from interned Japanese–American illustrators. In 1943 a scholarship allowed her to leave the camp to study at Milwaukee State Teachers College. However, when she realized that she could never find a teaching position in Wisconsin because of her Japanese ancestry, she headed to Black Mountain College in North Carolina in 1946. The Black Mountain College community, including illustrious teachers such as Albers family, §1 and R(ichard) Buckminster Fuller, nurtured Asawa’s artistic foundation and philosophy. There she started on looped-wire sculpture after discovering the basket crocheting technique in Mexico in 1947. Upon graduation, she married her classmate, the architect Albert Lanier (...

Article

Japanese, 20th century, male.

Born 1915, in Tokyo.

Painter, sculptor.

Jiro Asazuma was educated and greatly influenced by the painter Saburo Hasegawa, a theoretician of Abstract art.

Article

Ay-O  

Japanese, 20th century, male.

Active in the USA.

Born 1931, in Ibaraki Prefecture.

Sculptor, print artist.

Kinetic Art.

Ay-O graduated from the art teaching department of Tokyo Education University in 1954, and moved to New York in 1958. From this date he took part in the Tokyo International Print Biennale and, from ...

Article

Japanese, 20th century, male.

Active in Italy from 1956.

Born 1926, in Yamagata Prefecture.

Sculptor.

Kenjiro Azuma graduated from Tokyo University of Fine Arts and Music in 1953 and entered the Karlsruhe Academy in Germany in 1957, subsequently also obtaining a diploma from the Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera in Milan. He exhibited in several international exhibitions in Europe and the Tokyo Biennale in ...

Article

Elizabeth F. Bennett

revised by Lei Xue

[I Ping-shou; zi Zisi; hao Moqing]

(b Ninghua, Fujian Province, 1754; d Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province, 1815).

Chinese calligrapher, minor painter, and seal-carver. He passed the civil service examination to become a jinshi in 1789. He then had a series of official posts, serving on the Board of Justice, as an examiner, and as a prefectural magistrate first at Huizhou in Guangdong Province and then at Yangzhou in Jiangsu Province. Yi is generally recognized as a pioneering figure in the stele studies (beixue) movement in calligraphy (see China, §IV 2., (vii)). He occasionally painted landscapes, few of which are extant. His writings on calligraphy can be found in his Collected Poems of the Lingering Spring Thatched Hall (Liuchun caotang shichao).

Yi shared contemporary antiquarian interest and owned a large collection of rubbings from ancient inscriptions. In calligraphy Yi is best known for his clerical script (lishu), a modern reinterpretation of the style of Han dynasty stone steles. He also developed distinctive style in running script (...

Article

Donald F. McCallum

[Kuratsukuri no Tori; Shiba Kuratsukuribe no Obito Tori]

(fl early 7th century).

Japanese sculptor. He is associated with the inception of Buddhist image production in Japan and is generally considered to be the first great master of Japanese Buddhist sculpture (see also Japan §V 3., (i)). Tori Busshi is believed to have worked on the most important monumental sculpture of the Asuka period (c. 552–710), the bronze Great Buddha (Jap. Daibutsu) enshrined in the Asukadera (Japan’s first fully fledged temple complex, on the Yamato Plain c. 25 km from Nara). In addition, his name is inscribed on the mandorla of the gilt-bronze Shaka Triad of the Golden Hall (Kondō) at Hōryūji in Nara (623). He may, however, have operated primarily as a supervisor rather than a craftsman. Scholars usually associate most Asuka period images with his studio, which produced work modelled on the stone sculpture of Chinese Buddhist cave temples of the Northern Wei period (386–535). This is termed ...

Article

Klaus Ottmann

(b Detroit, MI, May 10, 1932; d Cairo, Egypt, June 23, 1997).

American sculptor, performance artist, and installation artist. Byars spent his formative years in Japan (1958–68) where he learnt to appreciate the ephemeral as a valued quality in art and embrace the ceremonial as a continuing mode in his life and work. He adapted the highly sensual, abstract, and symbolic practices found in Japanese Noh theatre and Shinto rituals to Western science, art, and philosophy. One of his most important works of that period is Untitled Object (Runcible) (1962–4), also known as The Performable Square, a 46 cm cube consisting of 1000 sheets of white flax paper that unfold into a 15×15 m white plane divided by 32 parallel strips connected at the top with paper hinges. It was first exhibited, folded, in 1964 at the National Museum of Modern Art, Kyoto, in the centre of the museum floor, placed on a sheet of glass, but not ‘performed’ (i.e. unfolded) until 14 years later, in ...

Article

Chinese, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in France since 1970.

Born 1948, in China.

Sculptor, installation artist.

After living in Hong Kong from 1962 to 1970, Chan moved to Paris, where he studied at the École des Beaux-Arts. He has taken part in many Salons and group exhibitions in Paris, notably the Salon de Mai, the Salon de Jeune Sculpture, and the MAC ...

Article

Chinese, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1962, in Zhejiang.

Painter, sculptor. Nudes.

Chen Wanshan began by studying sculpture at the National Zhejiang Academy of Fine Arts, graduating in 1985, and then took up painting. He teaches at the Central Academy of Fine Arts in Beijing. Both his sculptures and his paintings have appeared in many exhibitions in China and in ...

Article

Chinese, 16th century, male.

Activec.1500.

Born in Pucheng (Fujian).

Painter.

Chen Zihe was originally a sculptor, but afterwards devoted himself to painting in the style of Lin Liang and Wu Wei.

London (British Mus.): Rocks and Chrysan­themums (with the seal of the artist...

Article

Chinese, 20th–21st century, male.

Born 1953.

Painter, sculptor. Portraits, still-lifes, landscapes.

or Zheng Zaidong

Cheng Tsai-tung trained in journalism before switching to painting. While technically fairly rudimentary, his work proceeds from a synthetic vision that he renders in large flat areas.

1984–1985, Taiwan New Painting...

Article

Mary M. Tinti

(b Houston, TX, 1951).

American sculptor, installation and conceptual artist. His multimedia works investigate the pathology of contemporary culture. Mel Chin was born and raised in Houston, Texas to parents of Chinese birth and received his BA in 1975 from the Peabody College in Nashville, Tennessee. The works in Chin’s oeuvre are diverse in both medium and subject, but a consistent undercurrent of social, political, and environmental responsibility runs throughout. Whether a sculpture, film, video game, installation, public project or earthwork, Chin’s artworks consistently targeted a broad spectrum of pressing cultural and ecological interests and spread their message in subtle, if not viral ways.

In the 1980s, Chin produced a number of sculptures that set the stage for his ever-evocative artistic journey. The Extraction of Plenty from What Remains: 1823 (1988–9) is a frequently referenced piece from this period. It is a symbolic encapsulation of the effects of the Monroe Doctrine, referencing the complicated dealings between the US (represented by truncated replicas of White House columns) and Central America (represented by a cornucopia of mahogany branches, woven banana-tree fiber, and a surface layer of hardened blood, mud, and coffee grinds). From the 1990s, however, Chin moved away from strictly gallery-based installations and began creating works that directly engaged contemporary culture in a variety of physical and theoretical landscapes....