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Article

Bauhaus  

Rainer K. Wick

[Bauhaus Berlin; Bauhaus Dessau, Hochschule für Gestaltung; Staatliches Bauhaus in Weimar]

German school of art, design and architecture, founded by Walter Gropius. It was active in Weimar from 1919 to 1925, in Dessau from 1925 to 1932 and in Berlin from 1932 to 1933, when it was closed down by the Nazi authorities. The Bauhaus’s name referred to the medieval Bauhütten or masons’ lodges. The school re-established workshop training, as opposed to impractical academic studio education. Its contribution to the development of Functionalism in architecture was widely influential. It exemplified the contemporary desire to form unified academies incorporating art colleges, colleges of arts and crafts and schools of architecture, thus promoting a closer cooperation between the practice of ‘fine’ and ‘applied’ art and architecture. The origins of the school lay in attempts in the 19th and early 20th centuries to re-establish the bond between artistic creativity and manufacturing that had been broken by the Industrial Revolution. According to Walter Gropius in ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Active in the USA.

Born 15 March 1883, in Stuttgart; died 29 May 1972, in New York.

Painter, sculptor, graphic designer, poster artist, illustrator, architect, designer, decorative artist. Designs for carpets, advertising art, furniture, lamps, wallpaper.

Jugendstil.

Deutscher Werkbund.

Lucian Bernhard studied painting at the Kunstakademie in Munich, but taught himself design. He was active in Berlin. In ...

Article

Italian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in France from 1900.

Born 12 February 1856, in Milan; died 1940, in Molsheim (Bas-Rhin), France.

Painter, sculptor, designer of ornamental architectural features, decorative artist. Portraits. Furniture.

Orientalism, Art Nouveau.

Carlo Bugatti studied at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera in Milan, then at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. He was originally interested in architecture, producing work that was heavily influenced by the strong styles of ancient Egypt and Islam. He later decided to devote himself to designing furniture and ornamentation. His talent was soon recognised and he was awarded many distinctions at exhibitions in London, Turin and at the 1900 Exposition Universelle in Paris. He sold his company in Milan and settled in Paris, then in 1910 in Compiègne. At the end of his life, beset by tragedies, including the suicide of his son Rembrandt in 1916, he went to live with his other son, Ettore, who had the car factory at Molsheim. Giovanni, Ettore's son and heir, was killed when testing a car in 1939....

Article

Christina Lodder

revised by Benjamin Benus

Avant-garde tendency in 20th-century painting, sculpture, photography, design and architecture, with associated developments in literature, theatre and film. The term was first coined by artists in Russia in early 1921 and achieved wide international currency in the 1920s. Russian Constructivism refers specifically to a group of artists who sought to move beyond the autonomous art object, extending the formal language of abstract art into practical design work. This development was prompted by the utopian climate following the October Revolution of 1917, which led artists to seek to create a new visual environment, embodying the social needs and values of the new Communist order. The concept of International Constructivism defines a broader current in European art, most vital from around 1922 until the end of the 1920s, that was centred primarily in Central and Eastern Europe. International Constructivists were inspired by the Russian example, both artistically and politically. They continued, however, to work in the traditional artistic media of painting and sculpture, while also experimenting with film and photography and recognizing the potential of the new formal language for utilitarian design. The term Constructivism has frequently been used since the 1920s, in a looser fashion, to evoke a continuing tradition of geometric abstract art that is ‘constructed’ from autonomous visual elements such as lines and planes, and characterized by such qualities as precision, impersonality, a clear formal order, simplicity and economy of organization and the use of contemporary materials such as plastic and metal....

Article

Italian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1848, in Orvieto; died 1910, in Rome.

Sculptor, painter, architect, engineer.

Adolfo Cozza was a pupil of the sculptor Giovanni Dupre in Florence. At a young age he executed the statues for the cathedral portal in Orvieto. He also collaborated on the erection of the funerary monument to Victor-Emmanuel. His most important work was for the Villa Borghese, where he painted and sculpted several decorations....

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Active also active in France and in Egypt.

Born 1910, in Igalo; died 5 August 2000, in Milan.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, architect, sculptor, decorative designer. Landscapes with figures, landscapes, architectural views. Stage sets, monuments, medals.

Futurism.

Crali was born in what is now called Croatia. Several months later, his family settled in Zara (now Zadar), where he lived until ...

Article

Belgian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 14 October 1865, in Brussels; died 1959.

Painter, decorative designer, sculptor, architect. Religious subjects, figures, portraits, genre scenes, landscapes, seascapes.

Dierickx was a pupil of Jean Portaels and Joseph Stallaert. In 1887 he won the Godecharle Prize, which enabled him to travel in Italy. He regularly participated in the activities of the ...

Article

Dutch, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 4 November 1877, in Hilversum.

Painter, sculptor, medallist, architect, decorative designer. Murals.

Carl Gresnicht entered the Benedictine abbey in Maredsous (Belgium) as a novice in 1898. He studied in Rome and worked on the decoration of the monastery of St Gabriel in Prague. In ...

Article

Gjergj Frashëri

[Nikollë]

(b Shkodër, Aug 15, 1860; d Shkodër, Dec 12, 1939).

Albanian painter, architect, sculptor and photographer. His grandfather Andrea Idromeno was a painter and a doctor of theology; his father, Arsen Idromeno, was a furniture designer and painter. Kol Idromeno took private lessons in painting (1871–5) at the studio of the photographer and painter Pietro Marubi (1834–1903). In 1875 he won a competition and began studies at the Accademia di Belle Arti, Venice. However, due to arguments with his teacher, he abandoned the school and continued his studies in one of the large studios in Venice (1876–8).

At first Idromeno produced works with both religious and secular themes that were noted for their highly realistic rendering of the human form (e.g. St Mary Magdalene, oil on canvas, 1877; Shkodër Mus.). Many of his biblical works were executed in churches within the Shkodër district, with perhaps his best work being the frescoes of the Orthodox Church in Shkodër, especially the fragment depicting ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 29 November 1921, in Toulon; died 16 October 1986.

Painter, architect, decorative designer, sculptor. Murals, monuments.

Henri Mathis lived and worked in Toulon on the Côte d'Azur. In 1939, after his secondary studies in Avignon and Toulon, he enlisted and fought throughout the war. He then studied at the Écoles des Beaux-Arts of Toulon and Marseilles, first concentrating on architecture, then painting and sculpture. In ...

Article

Deborah Cullen

[MoMA] (New York)

The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) was founded in 1929 by patrons Lillie P(lummer) Bliss, Cornelius J. Sullivan and Rockefeller family §(1) to establish an institution devoted to modern art. Over the next ten years the Museum moved three times and in 1939 settled in the Early Modern style building (1938–9) designed by Philip S. Goodwin and Edward Durell Stone that it still occupies at 11 West 53 Street. Subsequent renovations and expansions occurred in the 1950s and 1960s by Philip Johnson, in 1984 by Cesar Pelli and in 2002–4 by Yoshirō Taniguchi (b 1937). MoMA QNS, the temporary headquarters during this project, was subsequently used to provide art storage. In 2000, MoMA and the contemporary art space, P.S.1, Long Island City, Queens, announced their affiliation. Recent projects are shown at P.S.1 in Queens in a renovated public school building.

According to founding director, Alfred H(amilton) Barr...

Article

John Wilton-Ely

Term coined in the 1880s to denote the last stage of the classical tradition in architecture, sculpture, painting and the decorative arts. Neo-classicism was the successor to Rococo in the second half of the 18th century and was itself superseded by various historicist styles in the first half of the 19th century. It formed an integral part of Enlightenment, the in its radical questioning of received notions of human endeavour. It was also deeply involved with the emergence of new historical attitudes towards the past—non-Classical as well as Classical—that were stimulated by an unprecedented range of archaeological discoveries, extending from southern Italy and the eastern Mediterranean to Egypt and the Near East, during the second half of the 18th century. The new awareness of the plurality of historical styles prompted the search for consciously new and contemporary forms of expression. This concept of modernity set Neo-classicism apart from past revivals of antiquity, to which it was, nevertheless, closely related. Almost paradoxically, the quest for a timeless mode of expression (the ‘true style’, as it was then called) involved strongly divergent approaches towards design that were strikingly focused on the Greco-Roman debate. On the one hand, there was a commitment to a radical severity of expression, associated with the Platonic Ideal, as well as to such criteria as the functional and the primitive, which were particularly identified with early Greek art and architecture. On the other hand, there were highly innovative exercises in eclecticism, inspired by late Imperial Rome, as well as subsequent periods of stylistic experiment with Mannerism and the Italian Baroque....

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 22 March 1884, in Atchison (Kansas); died 1941, in Los Angeles.

Painter, sculptor, decorative designer.

Peggy Martin Nichols, a pupil of Cecilia Beaux and W.M. Chase, worked in Los Angeles and was also an architect.

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 16 May 1872, in Münster; died 5 April 1943, in Baierbrunn (Upper Bavaria), in Munich according to other sources.

Architect, painter, draughtsman, illustrator, engraver, sculptor, interior designer, graphic designer. Portraits, landscapes with figures, landscapes, portraits. Stage sets, designs (furniture).

Jugendstil, Art Deco...

Article

Donna Corbin

(b Münster, May 16, 1872; d Baierbrunn, Upper Bavaria, April 5, 1943).

German designer, architect, sculptor and painter. He was the son of a cabinetmaker and studied painting at the Staatliche Kunstakademie in Düsseldorf (1889–91) and in Berlin (1891–2) before settling in Munich in 1892. Working as a portrait painter and graphic designer, he contributed illustrations to a number of periodicals including Pan (from 1895) and Jugend (from 1896). His earliest furniture designs were a chair and mirror shown at the seventh Internationale Kunstausstellung held at the Glaspalast in Munich in 1897. In the following year he was commissioned by F. A. O. Krüger (b 1868), one of the founder-members of the Vereinigte Werkstätten für Kunst im Handwerk, Munich, to produce designs for the workshop. Like other designers of the Vereinigte Werkstätten, such as Richard Riemerschmid, Peter Behrens or Bruno Paul, Pankok produced designs in a variety of media, although his designs for furniture are probably his most original. His early furniture designs are characterized by a certain heaviness and ‘organic’ look, recalling the work of Antoni Gaudí and representing the more expressionistic, less functional, aspect of ...

Article

Italian, 20th century, female.

Born 1890, in Rome.

Painter, decorative artist. Portraits, animals. Miniatures.

Matilde Festa was the daughter of the sculptor Felice, and she married the architect Marcello Piacentini. She spent a considerable time in Egypt. As well as painting animals and miniatures, she also did a considerable amount of decorative work....

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 20 June 1868, in Munich; died 15 April 1957, in Munich.

Painter, sculptor, decorative designer, designer, architect, interior designer. Genre scenes. Furniture, fabrics, ceramic, glassware, carpets, toys.

Richard Riemerschmid trained in painting at the Kunstakademie of Munich from 1888...

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1927, in Rome.

Painter, sculptor, decorative artist.

Sterpini's early work shared much with fantasy art in its broadest sense. From this his work moved towards Surrealism. In 1963, in association with the architect Fabio de Sanctis, he founded the Officina Undici...