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Article

Italian, 14th century, male.

Born c. 1290, in Pontedera; died between 26 August 1348 and 19 July 1349, in Orvieto (Umbria).

Sculptor, goldsmith, architect.

As the son of the goldsmith Ugolino Nini, it is likely that Andrea Pisano da Pontedera started by learning his father's trade. However, nothing is known of his early years except that he appears to have joined the studio of Lorenzo Maitani of Orvieto. From ...

Article

Italian, 14th century, male.

Active in Siena.

Sculptor, goldsmith.

In 1375-1376, Bartolommeo di Tommè collaborated on the statues of the apostles for the tower chapel of the Palazzo Pubblico.

Article

G. Kreytenberg

(fl 1300–34).

Italian sculptor and goldsmith. He is documented in Siena, Massa Marittima, and Messina. He was the son of Goro di Guccio Ciuti (d before 1311), a Florentine sculptor who, with Lapo and Donato, assistants of Nicola Pisano, was granted citizenship in Siena in 1271. Goro di Guccio Ciuti’s sons Neri and Ambrogio, of whom nothing further is known, followed in their father’s footsteps, as did Goro.

Goro’s earliest works are probably the monumental busts on the interior of the north portal of the main façade of the cathedral in Siena, dating from around 1300. One of the two lions on the interior of the main portal also dates from around this time. Goro must have made the sculptural figures, chased in silver, on the shepherd’s staff in the Museo Capitolare in Città di Castello during the first decade of the 14th century. He probably made a statue of a ...

Article

Danielle B. Joyner

From the time John Cassian established the first female foundation in Marseille in ad 410, monastic women lived in varying states of enclosure and were surrounded by diverse images and objects that contributed to their devotion, education and livelihood. The first rule for women, written in 512 by St Caesarius of Arles, emphasized their strict separation from men and the world, as did the Periculoso, a directive issued by Pope Boniface VIII (reg 1294–1303) in 1298. Various architectural solutions developed throughout the Middle Ages to reconcile the necessities of enclosure with the access required by male clerics to celebrate Mass and provide pastoral care. Nuns’ choirs, where the women would gather for their daily prayers, were often constructed as discreet spaces in the church, which allowed women to hear or see the Mass without interacting with the cleric, as in the 10th-century choir in the eastern transept gallery at St Cyriakus in Gernrode, Germany. In some Cistercian examples, the nuns’ choir appeared at the west end of the nave. Dominican and Franciscan architecture was largely varied. Double monasteries, which housed men and women, also required careful construction. A 7th-century text describing the church of St Brigida in ...

Article

Italian, 14th – 15th century, male.

Born 1378–1380, in Florence; died 1 December 1455, in Florence.

Painter, sculptor.

Florentine School.

Lorenzo Ghiberti’s early training was as a goldsmith and a painter in the workshop of Bartolo di Michele (Bartoluccio), who was – according to differing accounts – either the boy’s father or stepfather. In ...

Article

(d c. 1417–20).

Goldsmith, sculptor, and painter, probably of German origin. None of his works is known to have survived, but he is mentioned twice in mid-15th-century texts: in the second book of Lorenzo Ghiberti’s Commentarii and in the manuscript of the Anonimo Magliabecchiano. Both texts relate that Gusmin died during the reign of Pope Martin (i.e. Martin V, reg 1417–31), in the year of the 438th Olympiad (i.e. between 1415 and 1420). He worked in the service of the Duke of Anjou, who was forced to destroy Gusmin’s greatest work, a golden altar, in order to provide cash for his ‘public needs’. Gusmin consequently retired to a hermitage where he led a saintly life, painting and teaching young artists. Although it is clear from his account that Ghiberti never knew the master or saw any of his original works, he stated that he had seen casts of his sculptures, which, he said, were as fine as the work of the ancient Greeks, although the figures were rather short. There have been numerous attempts to identify Gusmin with artists, both German and Italian, fitting the account of Ghiberti and the Anonimo Magliabecchiano. Swarzenski first named Gusmin as the author of the alabaster Rimini altar (Frankfurt am Main, Liebieghaus), but this has now been demonstrated to be of Netherlandish workmanship. Krautheimer proposed a convincing reconstruction of Gusmin’s career, suggesting that his Angevin patron was ...

Article

Italian, 14th – 15th century, male.

Born c. 1374, in Siena; died 20 October 1438, in Siena.

Sculptor. Statues, monuments, tombs.

Sienese School.

Jacopo della Quercia’s father was a goldsmith and sculptor, and it is hypothesized that Jacopo received at least some training under his direction. Unfortunately there is no secure information about Jacopo’s youth, apprenticeship, or early works, although presumably he was a sculptor of some reputation by ...

Article

Jutland  

Harriet Sonne de Torrens

Mainland peninsula of modern-day Denmark and one of the three provinces (Jutland, Zealand and Skåne, southern Sweden) that constituted medieval Denmark. The conversion of the Danes to Christianity initiated a reorganization of the economic, social and legal structures of Denmark that would change the shape of Jutland dramatically between the 11th and 14th centuries. Under Knut the Great, King of Denmark and England (reg 1019–35), Jutland acquired a stable diocesan system (1060) that enabled a systematic collection of tithes and the growth of religious institutions between 1050 and 1250. During this period, agricultural practices changed as manor houses and landed estates were established, producing wealth for the ruling families. Under Valdemar I (reg 1157–82) and Knut VI (reg 1182–1202), Jutland witnessed a great building activity; on Jutland more than 700 stone churches were constructed, some replacing earlier wooden churches, each needing liturgical furnishings. Workshops, such as that of the renowned sculptor Horder and many others, were actively engaged in carving stone baptismal fonts (e.g. Malt, Skodborg, Ut, Stenild), capitals, reliefs (Vestervig, Aalborg) and tympana (Gjøl, Ørsted, Stjaer, Skibet), wooden cult figures, Jutland’s golden altars (Lisbjerg, Sahl, Stadil, Tamdrup) and wall paintings. Evidence of the earliest wall paintings in Jutland, ...

Article

French, 14th century, male.

Sculptor (ivory), goldsmith.

Renaud Le Bourgeois was working on a commission for Mahaut, Countess of Artois, in 1311.

Article

Italian, 14th century, male.

Active in Siena.

Goldsmith, sculptor.

Manno di Biandino worked in Bologna from 1301 to 1312.

Article

Hungarian family of sculptors and bronze-casters. The only sources for the activity (before 1372 to 1390) of Martin [Martón] and George [György] Kolozsvár are the unreliable inscriptions on copies of their mostly lost works. Their names are always given in the same order, which may either be a mark of seniority or reflect their perceived artistic ranking. One may have specialized in modelling, the other in casting. The 17th-century copies of the full-size statues (originals destr. 1660) of the canonized Hungarian kings Stephen, Emeric and László from the cathedral of Nagyvárad (now Oradea, Romania) were inscribed per Martinum et Georgium filios magistri Nicolai pictoris de Colosvar. This inscription, now lost, gives the most detailed information; the accompanying date, although this may well have been false, has been variously read as 1364, 1366 or 1371, indicating that the figures were cast during the reign of King Louis I (...

Article

Italian, 14th century, male.

Active in Siena.

Died c. 1375.

Sculptor, goldsmith, architect.

In 1348 Michele di Ser Memmo oversaw the building of the town hall of Pistoia and he made a silver statue of St John for the church of S Giovanni, Pistoia.

Article

Spanish, 14th century, male.

Active in Saragossa and Barcelona.

Died between 27 March 1387 and 18 June 1388.

Sculptor, goldsmith.

Barcelona School.

Pedro Moragues carved the tomb of Lope de Luna, Archbishop of Saragossa, in Saragossa Cathedral.

Article

Josep Bracons i Clapés

(fl 1358; d before 1388).

Catalan sculptor and goldsmith. He is first documented in 1358 in Barcelona, where he executed some wooden sculptures (untraced). A wooden Virgin and Child in the church of La Merced, Barcelona, has been attributed to him and linked to a commission for this church in 1361. In 1366 Moragues received a royal commission to make seven stone crosses (destr.) for the monastery of Montserrat, near Barcelona; he was still working for Montserrat in 1373. In 1379 he was in Saragossa where he made his most important work in sculpture, the tomb of Archbishop Lope Fernández de Luna in the Capilla de S Miguel of the cathedral. Executed during the Archbishop’s lifetime, the tomb was probably completed c. 1382, the year in which King Peter IV commissioned him to make tombs for several members of his family in S Francisco, Saragossa (destr.). The tombs of Ramón Serra el Vell in S María, Cervera, and ...

Article

Article

Italian, 14th century, male.

Active in Pisac.1315.

Died before 8 December 1368.

Sculptor, goldsmith, architect.

Nino Pisano was the son and pupil of Andrea Pisano and the brother of Tomaso. He took over from his father as master of works at the cathedral in Orvieto between ...

Article

Article

Italian, 14th – 15th century, male.

Active in the latter half of the 14th and the first half of the 15th century.

Born in Quercia Grossa, near Siena.

Painter, goldsmith, sculptor.

Pietro d'Angelo di Guarnieri da Siena was the father of Jacopo della Quercia and Priamo di Pietro. He is believed to have worked in Lucca between ...

Article

Ravello  

Antonio Milone

Italian cathedral city in the province of Salerno, Campania. Ravello has been documented as an urban centre since the 10th century and as a bishopric since 1087. The centre, near the Toro quarter, is high up between the two rivers that separate the city from Scala and Minori. The city’s fortifications were damaged and the city itself was sacked by a Pisan assault in 1135 and in 1137. At the end of the 14th century, its inhabitants also clashed with the neighbouring city of Scala. In the 13th century a mercantile oligarchy with power throughout all of Sicily and close relations to the Crown took control of the city, celebrated in Boccaccio’s Decameron (II.4), and enriched it with numerous monuments and artworks.

The cathedral, dedicated to S Pantaleone, dates to 1087 but was extensively altered in the late 18th century. The cathedral has three naves and the façade has three portals—the central one has a bronze door (...

Article

Italian, 14th century, male.

Died between 1390 and 1392.

Sculptor (including wood), goldsmith.

Mariano Romanelli worked on Siena Cathedral, from 1372, for which he sculpted several statues.