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Article

4th century, male.

Painter.

Ancient Greek.

Pliny Antenorides was, with Euphranor, a follower of Aristides - though not Aristides the famous painter of the time of Alexander but probably the grandfather of the latter and an architect, sculptor and painter. Nothing is known of the works of Antenorides....

Article

5th century, male.

Active in Attica in the second half of the 5th century BC.

Stone worker, sculptor (?).

Ancient Greek.

Archedemus was involved with the transformation of one of the largest natural grottoes to the south of Mount Hymettus (near the modern village of Vari) into a sanctuary dedicated to Pan, the Nymphs and the Charites (the Graces). At the foot of the central wall of the grotto, Archedemus has depicted himself (?) in his working clothes, with his pointed hammer and set square....

Article

Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time.

Astrology developed into a scientific branch of learning in ancient Greece, but because of the opposition of the Church Fathers it was transmitted to early medieval Europe in only fragmentary form in technically unsophisticated textbooks and popular divinatory genres. Literary and scientific texts provided more general ideas about the nature and attributes of the planets which were influential on later iconography. The first significant astrological images appear in 11th-century illustrated astronomical texts (e.g. London, BL, Cotton MS. Tiberius BV), which were acquired and produced by monasteries to aid with time-keeping and the construction of the Christian calendar....

Article

6th century, male.

Active during the second half of the 6th century BC.

Born in Magnesia ad Maeandrum.

Sculptor, architect.

Ancient Greek.

Bathycles, like many other Ionians in Asia, moved westwards under the threat from the Medes as first Lydia and then the coastal towns fell. He came eventually to work in Greece. Around 530 BC, he designed the vast decorative construction known as the ...

Article

6th century, male.

Active during the second half of the 6th century BC.

Born in Chios.

Sculptor, architect.

Ancient Greek.

Boupalus' work is known from the writings of Pausanias. Mention is made of a statue of Fortune, crowned with a polos (head-dress) and holding in her hand the horn of Amalthea. It is likely that Boupalus was the originator of this type of statue, so often copied by the Romans. They, and Augustus in particular, much appreciated his work, examples of which were placed in the temple of Apollo on the Palatine. Boupalus worked with his sculptor brother Athenis in several towns in Asia Minor and at Delos....

Article

Sarah P. Morris

[Gr.: ‘cunning worker’; Lat. Daedalus]

(?fl c. 600 bc).

Legendary Greek craftsman. He is conventionally associated with Bronze Age Crete and was credited in antiquity with a variety of technical and artistic achievements.

The earliest reference to Daidalos is in the Iliad, where he is named as maker of a choros for Ariadne at Knossos. In the 2nd century ad Pausanias recorded seeing this choros as a white marble relief at Knossos (IX.xl.2), but the term used in the Iliad could mean equally a painting, dancing-floor or dance. In the Classical period (c. 480–323 bc) Daidalos was mentioned primarily as a sculptor of ‘magic’ statues, both in drama (e.g. Euripides: Hecuba 838; Aristophanes: Daidalos frag. 194) and in philosophy (Plato: Menon 97d and Euthyphro 11c). In Athens he was given an Athenian pedigree as the son of Palamaon or Eupalamos, son of Metion, of the line of Erechtheos, and thus related to Hephaistos (e.g. Plato: Alcibiades I.121). He was also reputedly the teacher or father of the early ...

Article

Dimitris Plantzos

An islet to the west of Paros and Antiparos in the centre of the Cyclades. It has been identified as ancient Prepesinthos, mentioned by Strabo (Geography X.v.3) and Pliny (Natural History vi.66). The archaeological remains of Despotikon were first explored in the late 19th century by pioneer Greek archaeologist Christos Tsountas, who excavated Early Cycladic (c. 3200–2000 bc) cemeteries at Livadi and Zoumbaria, and identified remains of a prehistoric settlement at the site of Chiromilos. Sixty more graves of the Early Cycladic period, as well as one of the Roman period, were discovered in the mid-20th century by the Greek Archaeological Service. Rescue excavations were initiated again in 1997, focused on the site at Mandra, where an extensive sanctuary dedicated to Apollo has been located. The excavation has yielded a great number of finds, many of which are of prime importance as to the interpretation of the site, its role in the Aegean and its relations with the Near East, from the Archaic to the Roman period....

Article

Dimitris Plantzos

Greek city situated at the foothills of Mt Olympus in northern Greece (district of Pieria), 14 km south of modern city of Katerini. It was an important Macedonian political and cultural centre from the Classical to the Roman periods (6th century bc–4th century ad). By the 6th century bc it seems that the Macedonians were gathering at Dion in order to honour the Olympian gods, chiefly Zeus; according to myth, Deukalion, the only man to survive the flood at the beginning of time, built an altar to Zeus as a sign of his salvation. His sons, Macedon and Magnes, lived in Pieria, near Olympus, and became the mythical ancestors of the Macedonians. The altar allegedly erected by Deukalion remained the centre of the cult life at Dion throughout its history.

King Archelaos of Macedon (c. 413–399 bc) organized athletic and dramatic contests in the framework of the religious celebrations, following the practice of the Greeks in the south, such as at the great sanctuaries of Olympia and Delphi. Philip II (...

Article

Dimitris Plantzos

[Satra]

Greek city situated on the island of Crete, by the north-west foothills of mount Psiloritis (anc. Ida), 30 km south-east of the present-day city of Rethymnon. It was a centre for Aegean and Greek culture from the Prehistoric to the Byzantine periods (4th millennium bc–7th century bc).

Ancient Eleutherna is a typical example of a Cretan polis (city) inhabited continuously from at least from the 9th century bc (the so-called ‘Dark Age’ of Greek history) to the late Roman and Byzantine period (6th–7th century bc). Even before that, archaeological finds suggest the existence of a continuous presence on the site from the late Neolithic (4th millennium bc) through to a flourishing Minoan site of the 3rd to 2nd millennia bc. Although later construction all but eliminated traces of prehistoric architecture, there is still significant evidence to confirm unbroken habitation. In historical times (9th century...

Article

3rd century BC, male.

Active in Megara.

Sculptor.

Ancient Greek.

Eupalinus worked in Athens. He should not be confused with famous architect of the 6th century.

Article

Stephen T. Driscoll

Scottish royal centre in Perthshire, which reached its zenith in the late Pictish period (8th–9th centuries ad) and is the source of an assemblage of high quality ecclesiastical sculpture. Occupying the fertile heart of Strathearn, Forteviot has been more or less in continuous use as a ceremonial centre since the 3rd millennium bc and is the focus of élite burials from the Early Bronze Age (c. 1900 bc) through to the Pictish era. Cinead mac Alpín (Kenneth mac Alpine), the king traditionally identified with the foundation of the Gaelic kingdom of the Scots, died at the palacium (palace) of Forteviot in ad 858. It was eclipsed as a royal centre by Scone in ad 906, but remained a significant royal estate until the 13th century.

The only surviving fabric of the palace is a unique monolithic arch, presumably a chancel arch, carved with three moustached Picts in classical dress flanking a crucifix (now in the Royal Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh). Fragments of at least four additional sandstone crosses indicate the presence of a major church, perhaps a monastery. The celebrated Dupplin Cross (now in Dunning Church) originally overlooked Forteviot from the north. This monolithic, free-standing cross (2.5 m tall) bears a Latin inscription naming Constantine son of Fergus, King of the Picts (...

Article

7th century, male.

Active in Lacedaemonia probably during the 7th century BC.

Sculptor, architect.

Ancient Greek.

Gitiadas made a statue of Athena for the temple dedicated to the goddess in Sparta, as well as two tripods decorated with figures of Ares and Aphrodite for the temple of Apollo at Amyclae. He worked in bronze, particularly for the cladding on reliefs in a number of temples, such as that of Athena Chalkioikos (Athena of the Bronze House) in Sparta. This technique, more metalwork than sculpture, derived from eastern art. It is not possible to describe Gitiadas' style, since nothing remains of his work....

Article

A. Linfert

[Callimachus]

(fl second half of the 5th century bc).

Greek sculptor. Almost nothing is known of his life. He probably came from Corinth since, according to Vitruvius (On Architecture IV.i.9–10), Kallimachos invented the Corinthian capital (presumably before its earliest known use—in uncanonical form—at Bassai). His technical abilities were also displayed in the golden lamp (late 5th century bc) he made for the Erechtheion in Athens, which burnt for a year without refilling and had a chimney in the shape of a palm (Pausanias: Guide to Greece I.xxvi.6), i.e. a hollow column with an Aeolic ‘reed’ capital, rare before the Hellenistic period (323–27 bc). Kallimachos’ technical punctiliousness may be the reason for his ancient nickname, katatexitechnos (‘he who pines away because of art’; Vitruvius IV.i.10), given to him, according to Vitruvius, because of the ‘subtlety’ of his work in marble. His care in drilling the stone led Pausanias to use a play on words, calling him ...

Article

5th century, male.

Born c. 490 BC, in Athens; died c. 432 BC.

Sculptor, painter, architect.

Ancient Greek.

Phidias is a particularly difficult sculptor to describe, especially since no works exist that can be attributed to him with absolute certainty. Some of his statues are known through copies or written descriptions. His main body of work, the Parthenon sculptures, has become badly deteriorated and in any case was executed for the most part by assistants, even if they were following his plans. Yet, although he is difficult to pin down in detail, his figure looms large through the example of his major works. There is something exceptional and larger than life about Phidias, both in his choice of statues and in the programmes of work he was to tackle, such as the Parthenon....

Article

Rhoecus  

7th century, male.

Born in Samos.

Sculptor, architect.

Ancient Greek.

Rhoecus, with his son Theodorus, built and decorated several temples, including that dedicated to Hera in Samos and the first temple of Artemis in Ephesus. With his son and Smilis of Aegina he directed work on the Labyrinth at Lemnos. He is said to have invented bronze casting for statues....

Article

Scopas  

4th century, male.

Active during the first half of the 4th century BC.

Born in Paros.

Sculptor, architect.

Ancient Greek.

Scopas worked with Bryaxis, Leochares and Timotheus on the sculptural decoration of the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus (c. 350 BC), his contribution being the Battle of Greeks and Amazons...

Article

Skopas  

Andrew F. Stewart

(fl mid-4th century bc).

Greek sculptor and architect ( see fig.). He was probably the son of the Parian Aristandros, who worked on the Spartan dedication for their victory at Aigospotamoi in 405 bc. He was employed as an architect and sculptor at Tegea after 395 bc and as a sculptor on the mausoleum at Halikarnossos (see Halikarnassos, §2) from c. 367 bc to c. 351 bc, at Ephesos after 356 bc and in Thebes before 336 bc.

Pliny, Pausanias and others recorded 25 works by Skopas in the Peloponnese, Attica, northern Greece, Ionia and Caria (see J. Overbeck: Die antiken Schriftquellen, Leipzig, 1868/R Hildesheim, 1959, pp. 221–30, nos 1149–89). Several were later taken to Rome as loot. All but one were of marble and included 16 studies of the younger gods (e.g. Aphrodite, Apollo, Ares, Artemis, Asklepios, Athena, Dionysos, Hekate, Hermes and Hestia). The rest comprised the ...

Article

3rd century, male.

Active at the beginning of the 3rd century BC.

Born in Cnidus.

Sculptor, decorative designer, architect.

Ancient Greek.

Sostratus is famous as the architect of the pharos (lighthouse) of Alexandria. This grandiose work was celebrated for its daring construction, the richness of its sculptural decoration and the ingeniousness of the mechanism that caused the action of the wind to make the gigantic Tritons' trumpets carved at the feet of Ptolemy II sound so as to warn navigators lost in the mist....