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Article

Canadian First Nations (Oji-Cree), 20th century, female.

Born 28 March 1971, in Yorkton (Saskatchewan).

Installation artist, ceramicist, photographer, sculptor, printmaker.

KC Adams studied at Concordia University, in Montreal, Quebec, where she received her BFA in Studio Arts in 1998. Her artistic practice was further developed through artists’ residencies in Canada, at institutions in Banff, Charlottetown and Winnipeg. During her ...

Article

American, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 19 February 1946, in Washington DC.

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman, engraver, photographer, video artist, glassmaker, decorative designer. Theatre design.

AfriCobra Group.

Akili Ron Anderson attended the Corcoran School of Art and Howard University in Washington DC where he lives and works. He is a member of AfriCobra (African Commune of Bad Relevant Artists) founded in ...

Article

Christiane Paul

(b Buffalo, NY, May 25, 1978).

American computer artist, performance artist, video artist, installation artist, composer, sculptor, and printmaker. He graduated in 2000 from the Oberlin Conservatory of Music, where he originally studied classical guitar but later switched to the technology of music. At Oberlin he also met Paul B. Davis with whom he formed the Beige Programming Ensemble in 2000, and released a record of 8-bit music entitled The 8-Bit Construction Set. In 2010 he co-founded, with Howie Chen and Alan Licht, the band Title TK.

Arcangel’s body of work has consistently addressed a series of themes, such as the manner in which we express ourselves through technological tools and platforms (from Photoshop to YouTube) in funny, original, creative, and awkward ways. His projects often explore our fascination with technology by playfully undermining our expectations of it and limiting viewers’ control. Another theme that frequently surfaces is the speed of technological obsolescence and the absurdity of a given technology’s lifecycle, which often moves from the cutting-edge of design to an insult of good taste (see Siegel, pp. 81–2). Arcangel connects these themes to the history of art, drawing parallels between pop-cultural vernacular and approaches in the fine art world and combining high tech and do-it-yourself (DIY) approaches. Among his best-known works are his hacks and modifications of Nintendo game cartridges and obsolete computer systems from the 1970s and 1980s (...

Article

Cecile Johnson

(Losch)

(b Long Beach, CA, March 14, 1941).

American installation artist, painter, printmaker and sculptor. Bartlett studied at Mills College, Oakland, CA (1960–63), and at the Yale School of Art and Architecture, New Haven, CT (1964–5). The progressive approach to modern art taught at Yale and the nearby thriving art scene of New York were instrumental in her early development (1963–early 1970s). Bartlett’s first one-person exhibition was in New York (1970) in the loft of the artist Alan Saret. Nine-point Pieces (1973–4), a later work, was shown at the Paula Cooper Gallery in New York and was experimental both conceptually and materially. Her ambivalent use of systems to establish an order and to oppose it allowed her to explore the material and the conceptual process of making images and objects. Rhapsody (1975–6; priv. col., see exh. cat., p. 21), one of her best-known installations, consists of 988 steel plates covered with screenprint grids and hand-painted Testors enamel and hung on a wall (2.28×47.86 m). Each plate exists individually and in relation to its adjoining plate and may be read vertically or horizontally, creating a mesh of stylistic variability exploring both figurative and non-figurative motifs. Another work of the 1970s is ...

Article

Native American (Wiyot and Yurok), 20th–21st century, male.

Born 1946, in Newport (Oregon).

Sculptor, painter, ceramicist, mixed-media artist, print-maker.

Rick Bartow of the Wiyot and Yurok Nations of Northern California works in a number of media to create images which often reference indigenous North American transformation myths. His work with the Maori artist John Bevan Ford has also been an influence. In ...

Article

American, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active since 1972 also active in France.

Born 1951, in Los Angeles.

Painter (including gouache/mixed media), watercolourist, sculptor, engraver. Figures, portraits.

James Brown became interested in specifically religious symbols, and their interior force, at a very early age, while he was studying at school and at the Jesuit University. When he went to Paris in ...

Article

James Smalls

(b Somerville, NJ, 1955).

African American sculptor, printmaker, and conceptual artist. He grew up in New Jersey and attended the Boston University School of Fine Arts, the School of Visual Arts and the Art Students League of New York City. Cole is best known for assembling and transforming ordinary domestic objects, such as irons, ironing boards, high-heeled shoes, lawn jockeys, hair dryers, bicycle parts and other discarded appliances and hardware into imaginative and powerful configurations and installations embedded with references to the African American experience and inspired by West African religion, mythology and culture. Visual puns and verbal play characterized his works, thereby creating layered meanings. The objects he chose were often discarded mass-produced American products that had themselves acquired an alternate history through their previous handling and use.

In 1989, he became attracted to the motif of the steam iron both for its form and for its perceived embodiment of the experience and history of the unknown persons who had previously used it. He referred to the earliest versions of these irons as ‘Household Gods’ and ‘Domestic Demons’. With them, he engaged with ideas utilizing not only the found object but also the repetitive scorch mark of the iron arranged in either purely decorative patterns or in such ways as to suggest a face or African mask (...

Article

American, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active also active in France.

Born 1957, in Concord (New Hampshire), United States.

Painter, sculptor, collage artist, pastellist, draughtsman, engraver, screen printer, illustrator. Stage sets.

Neo-Expressionism, Citationism.

George Condo is an American artist who lived in Paris before moving to New York in the early 1980s. There, he met Andy Warhol, Julian Schnabel, Jean-Michel Basquiat, and Keith Haring, and he worked with Beat Generation authors William S. Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg. In 1999 he received an award from the American Academy of Arts and Letters....

Article

Native American (Okanagan), 20th–21st century, male.

Born 1953, in Omak, Washington.

Printmaker, muralist, sculptor, mixed-media artist. Collage, glass.

Born in 1953, Joe Feddersen is an Okanagan member of the Colville Confederated Tribes, and a Native American artist. He earned his BFA at the University of Washington (...

Article

American, 20th – 21st century, female.

Born 1947.

Sculptor, lithographer, installation artist.

Minimal Art.

Maren Hassinger is an adjunct professor at the State University of New York, Stony Brook. She works with wire which she treats as she would textile. Her pieces, which she has described as 'kinetic', seem subjected to the elements and to behave in the way of plants, even set inside a gallery. This is her way of referring to an era when nature was not threatened by human activity and to the rural past of African Americans. She is the author of numerous open-air installations such as ...

Article

Native American (Cheyenne and Arapaho), 20th–21st century, male.

Born 22 November, 1954, in Wichita (Kansas).

Painter, draughtsman, sculptor, printmaker, installation artist, conceptual artist, educator.

Edgar Heap of Birds is one of the most distinguished North American indigenous artists of his generation. His works reveal a distinctly critical and historical awareness of the ways that American Indian peoples, their histories and their viewpoints have been ignored and written over under colonialism. He has received numerous honours, presenting his work in competition for the United States Pavilion at the 52nd Venice Biennale (...

Article

American, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 7 June 1947, in Terre Haute (Indiana).

Sculptor, painter (mixed media/gouache), pastellist, printmaker.

New Image (related to).

Bryan Hunt studied at the Otis Art Institute in Los Angeles, obtaining a BFA in 1971, and participated in the Whitney Museum of American Art Independent Study Program in ...

Article

Lauren R. O’Connell

(b Bellingham, WA, Aug 25, 1930; d San Francisco, CA, May 17, 2009).

Lauren R. O’Connell

American sculptor, installation artist, printmaker, and painter.

Ireland studied at the California College of the Arts and Crafts (CCAC) in Oakland, CA, where he was awarded a BAA in industrial design in 1953. He travelled extensively for the next two decades, working in a variety of occupations ranging from architectural draughtsman to safari guide in Kenya and Tanzania. He made minimal paintings and prints for almost 20 years before beginning the mature phase of his artistic practice. From 1972 to 1974 Ireland studied printmaking at the San Francisco Art Institute where he was awarded a MFA. His graduate advisor, American printmaker Kathan Brown (b 1935), introduced him to conceptual artist and curator Tom Marioni, who founded the artist-run Museum of Conceptual Art (MOCA) in San Francisco. Ireland showed his work and spent much time at MOCA with artists of the Bay Area Conceptual Art scene, including Marioni, Paul Kos, Howard Fried, Bonnie Ora Sherk, and Tony Labat....

Article

American, 20th – 21st century, female.

Born 1957, in Norfolk (Virginia).

Sculptor of assemblages, installation artist, painter, collage artist, screen printer, mixed media.

Annette Lemieux studied at the Hartford Art School, University of Hartford, receiving a BFA in 1980, and began to exhibit her work in the same year. She has lectured or been visiting artist at the School for Visual Arts, New York; New York University; Rhode Island School of Design; Harvard University; and Yale University. She lives in Brooklyn and has a studio in Allston....

Article

American, 20th–21st century, male.

Born 17 October 1955, in Birmingham (Alabama).

Painter, draughtsman, sculptor, engraver, collage artist, installation artist, photographer, video artist. Figures, portraits.

Kerry James Marshall grew up in South Central Los Angeles and studied at the Otis Art Institute, receiving a PhD in 1999. He lives in Chicago and teaches at the University of Illinois.

Marshall’s work centres on popular African-American culture. The skin tone of his figures is unapologetically black as a statement against the negative perceptions which are still attached to this colour and to denote the 1960s popular and activist black aesthetics, which embraced all expressions of African-American culture. Marshall’s politically charged work aims to give substance to a social vision. In Memento #5 (2003), he aims to preserve the memory of Civil Rights movement heroes like Martin Luther King, Jr., John F. Kennedy, and Malcolm X. His intensely black-skinned figures contrast and enrich the colourful backgrounds that Marshall adapts from such modern masters as Matisse. His compelling and complex images reference black folk art and aim to counter the stereotypical representations of black people in Western painting....

Article

American, 20th – 21st century, female.

Born 1956, in Los Angeles.

Draughtswoman, installation artist, sculptor, engraver (including wood). Figures, animals.

Alison Saar studied at Scripps College, Claremont (California), and at the Otis Art Institute, Los Angeles. She is Betye Saar's daughter. She dwells on themes of the African diaspora in installations and sculptures where her figures can assume the dimension of fetishes. She brings together found objects, string, dust, all sorts of materials which, within her constructions or assemblages, take on ritualistic connotations. Her work also reflects ironically the role of women in a patriarchal society....

Article

Michelle Yun

(b New York, NY, Dec 25, 1944).

American sculptor, draftsman and installation artist. Saret received a BArch from Cornell University in Ithaca, NY, in 1966 and subsequently studied at Hunter College in New York under Robert Morris from 1966 to 1968. In the late 1960s his work was classified as part of the “anti-form” movement, which rejected the rigidity of Minimalism in favor of creating non-figurative works that were structured in part by the inherent physical properties of the industrial materials favored by this group.

Saret’s early sculptures from the 1960s and 1970s were primarily crafted from industrial metal wire of varying thickness, though he also sometimes used rubber, wire mesh or other non-art materials. They were often suspended from the ceiling or installed directly on the ground and exuded a weightless, ephemeral quality akin to clouds or gestural drawings rendered three-dimensionally. It was around this time, in 1967, that Saret began his ongoing Gang drawings series. These gestural drawings were initially created as preliminary studies for the sculptures and were produced by the artist spontaneously grabbing a handful, or “gang,” of colored pencils, thereby integrating an element of chance to the process....

Article

Native American (Santa Clara Pueblo), 21st century, female.

Born 1983, in Santa Fe (New Mexico).

Sculptor, printmaker, painter, draughtsman, installation artist. Aerosol painting.

Daughter of renowned sculptor Rosanne Swentzell, and great niece of Pueblo potter Nora Naranjo-Morse, Rose Bean Simpson is one of Native North America’s most incisive artists. She received an MFA from Rhode Island School of Design in ...

Article

Native American (Muscogee Creek and Seminole), 20th–21st century, female.

Born 1951, in Wewoka (Oklahoma).

Sculptor, installation artist.

C. Maxx Stevens was born in Oklahoma but raised in Wichita, Kansas. Her training began in the 1970s when she gained an Associate of Arts degree from Haskell Indian Junior College in ...

Article

American, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 17 November 1947, in Chicago.

Sculptor, painter, assemblage artist, mixed media, draughtsman, printmaker.

Robert Therrien studied at the Brooks Institute, Santa Barbara, obtaining a bachelor of fine arts degree in 1971, and at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, where he received a masters degree in ...