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Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time....


French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born January 1851, in Paris; died 1938.

Painter, sculptor, illustrator. Religious subjects, portraits, genre scenes.


Albert Aublet was a pupil of Claudius Jacquand and Gérôme. Very early on, he was drawn to the East, first visiting Constantinople (now Istanbul) in ...


Kirk Ambrose

Lithuanian art historian, scholar of folklore and Egyptology, and diplomat of Russian birth. Son of the celebrated Lithuanian Symbolist poet of the same name, Jurgis Baltrušaitis II studied under Henri(-Joseph) Focillon at the Sorbonne and earned the PhD in 1931. The concerns of his mentor are evident in ...


British, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 14 April 1863, in London; died 27 November 1933, in London.

Painter, sculptor, engraver, illustrator. Figure compositions, religious subjects, mythological subjects, landscapes.

Robert Anning Bell was the pupil of Aimé Morot in Paris and of Sir George Frampton in London. He taught at University College, Liverpool (...


French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 28 April 1868, in Lille; died 16 April 1941, in Paris.

Painter (gouache), watercolourist, sculptor, engraver, draughtsman, illustrator. Religious subjects, mythological subjects, nudes, portraits, genre scenes, still-lifes, landscapes, urban landscapes. Designs for tapestries.


School of Pont-Aven.

Émile Bernard plays a singular role in the history of painting in the late-19th century. As demonstrated by the important retrospective of his work mounted by the Fondation Mona Bismarck in Paris in 1991, he was the often-overlooked originator of a number of highly innovative movements (Cloisonnism, Synthetism, even Symbolism), whose paternity he claimed with vehemence in his writings, before he turned his back on them all with equal forcefulness later in life. He moved to the western Paris suburb of Asnières with his family in 1881, and showed an early interest in painting, studying at the Atelier Cormon from the age of 16. Here he met his mentor, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, and subsequently Van Gogh. Expelled from the studio in 1886 for insubordination and lack of discipline, he travelled to Normandy and Brittany, where he encountered Gauguin and his followers from the Pont-Aven School. In the same year, he painted the ...


German, 19th century, male.

Born 1778, in Berlin; died 1856, in Rome.

Painter, watercolourist, illustrator, sculptor (wood). Religious subjects, portraits, genre scenes, landscapes.


Nazarenes group.

After studying in Berlin, Catel travelled widely in France, Switzerland and Italy. From 1798 to 1800, he studied in Paris. He began to exhibit watercolours in Weimar in 1802, returning to Paris in 1807, when he first began to paint in oils. In 1811, while staying in Rome, he joined the Nazarene group of painters around Cornelius, Overbeck and Schadow. On his return to Berlin, he became a member of the academy of art, becoming a lecturer in 1841....


French, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 3 March 1763, in Paris; died 19 April 1810, in Paris.

Sculptor, draughtsman, illustrator, painter. Religious subjects. Statues, busts, low reliefs.

Antoine Denis Chaudet studied under Jean-Baptiste Stouf and Étienne Gois. He was awarded the second Prix de Rome in ...


Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 1869, in Antwerp; died 1941, in Brussels.

Painter, sculptor, illustrator, poster artist. Religious subjects, portraits, landscapes.

Art Nouveau.

Having first studied law, Ghisbert Combaz became a pupil at the academy in Antwerp and a professor at the Brussels academy. He spent most of his life in Antwerp, where he exhibited from 1886 onwards; he also exhibited in conjunction with the association of Art Nouveau artists known as the Libre Esthétique from 1897. As an art historian, he made special study of the art of the Far East. With their sinuous and undulating rhythm, the arabesques in his engravings and posters provide typical examples of the Modern Style....


French, 16th century, male.

Born c. 1522, probably in Sens (Yonne); died c. 1594, in Paris.

Painter, sculptor, engraver, draughtsman, illustrator. History painting, religious subjects, mythological subjects.

Fontainebleau School.

Jean Cousin the Younger was a pupil of his father Jean Cousin the Elder and worked for most of his life in Sens....


French, 19th century, male.

Born 6 January 1832, in Strasbourg; died 23 January 1883, in Paris.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, sculptor, engraver, lithographer, draughtsman, illustrator. Mythological subjects, religious subjects, military subjects, genre scenes, portraits, landscapes. Monuments, groups, statues.

The first ten years of Gustave Doré's life were spent in Strasbourg, surrounded by the medieval Gothic and ancien régime architecture typical of the Alsace. These surroundings made a lasting impression on the young Doré, as did the splendid Renaissance spiral staircase in his parents' home in the Rue des Écrivains (as Hans Haug notes in his preface to the catalogue of the Doré retrospective held in Strasbourg in 1854). Strasbourg and Alsace were fated to figure prominently (albeit in duly transliterated form) in the work of the gifted and precocious Doré, notably in his illustrations for Balzac's ...


German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 20 October 1867, in Rendsburg.

Painter, illustrator, sculptor. Figure compositions, religious subjects, figures, portraits, landscapes. Murals.

Ludwig Fahrenkrog was a student of Hugo Vogel and Anton Alexander von Werner at the academy of fine arts in Berlin, where he received many prizes. In ...


French, 20th century, male.

Born 10 April 1900, in Châteauroux; died 13 May 1989, in St-Aubin-Châteauneuf.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman, illustrator, designer, poster artist, sculptor. Religious subjects, military subjects, battles, figures, nudes, figure compositions. Wall decorations.

Robert Falcucci trained in Paris at the École des Beaux-Arts and the École des Arts Décoratifs, and he was also taught by Cécile and Émmanuel Cavaille-Coll. In ...


Italian, 17th century, male.

Born 1634, in Rome; died 1689, in Rome.

Painter, fresco artist, sculptor, decorative artist, draughtsman, illustrator. Religious subjects, allegorical subjects.

Ciro Ferri was Pietro da Cortona's outstanding pupil. He frequently worked alongside da Cortona and was retained on a regular basis by Pope Alexander VII and Prince Borghese. Grand Duke Cosimo III invited him to the Palazzo Pitti in Florence to complete frescoes left unfinished by da Cortona. By all accounts, Ferri did an excellent job and was soon entrusted with additional decorative work, including ...


French, 19th century, male.

Born 1854, in Paris; died 17 December 1937, in L'Isle-Adam (Val-d'Oise).

Painter, sculptor, engraver, illustrator. Religious subjects, genre scenes, landscapes, landscapes with figures.

He enrolled at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, where he studied sculpture under Jean Gautherin; he subsequently turned to painting and studied under Jean-Paul Laurens. Fourié exhibited for the first time at the Paris Salon in ...


French, 19th century, male.

Born October 1780, in Grasse; died 10 November 1850, in Paris.

Painter, sculptor, illustrator, lithographer. History painting, religious subjects, mythological subjects. Murals.

Alexandre Evariste studied under his father Jean-Honoré Fragonard and under Jacques-Louis David. He exhibited at the Paris Salon from 1799 to 1842...


French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in Marcilly-sur-Eure from 1984.

Born 10 March 1946, in Paris.

Painter (including gouache), installation artist, sculptor, engraver, draughtsman, illustrator. Mythological subjects, religious subjects, figure compositions, genre scenes, portraits, nudes, landscapes, still-lifes. Wall decorations, stage sets.

Nouvelle Figuration.

Gérard Garouste was mostly self-taught. He went to the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris for a brief period in ...


French, 19th century, male.

Born 11 May 1824, in Vesoul (Haute-Saône); died 10 January 1904, in Paris.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, sculptor, engraver, draughtsman, copyist. Mythological subjects, religious subjects, genre scenes, nudes, portraits, landscapes with figures.


Jean-Léon Gérôme attended secondary school in his native Vesoul and graduated with a bachelor’s degree in 1840. Determined to make his way as a painter, he moved to Paris to study under Paul Delaroche at the École des Beaux-Arts from 1842. He followed in Delaroche’s footsteps to Rome and attended life classes there. Gérôme returned to France in 1844 and worked in Charles Gleyre’s atelier. He entered the Prix de Rome but did not reach the final stages (although he won the prize for draughtsmanship). The workers’ revolution of 1848 saw him appointed to a captaincy in the National Guard. Gérôme travelled widely, visiting Italy, Turkey, the Danube region and Egypt and, on each occasion, returned with a large portfolio of sketches and studies. His marriage to one of the daughters of the publisher Goupil proved socially advantageous and he quickly made a name for himself to the extent that his work began to sell for substantial sums. He was appointed to a professorship at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris in 1864, then to membership of the Institut de France (1865). As a teacher his influence was substantial and he was known to be most supportive of his pupils.1865 was an annus mirabilis in terms of his career, when he was invited to the royal court at Compiègne. He continued to travel, visiting Grenada in 1883. In 1893 he was nominated, together with Benjamin Constant, to the honorary co-presidency of the Société des Peintres Orientalisants; this was followed by his election as officer first class of the Légion d’Honneur (1898). Jean Gérôme exhibited for the first time at the Paris Salon in 1847 at the age of 23, showing a composition entitled ...


Swiss, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active from 1871, later naturalised in France.

Born 25 May 1841, in Paris, to Swiss parents; died 23 October 1917, in Sceaux (Hauts-de-Seine), France.

Painter, watercolourist, sculptor, draughtsman, illustrator, poster artist, decorative designer. Religious subjects, urban landscapes. Designs for stained glass, designs (fabric/ceramics), furniture...


Hungarian, 20th century, male.

Active in France from 1927.

Born 31 January 1894, in Ketujfalu; died 23 February 1969, in Paris.

Painter, sculptor, engraver, illustrator. Historical subjects, religious subjects, portraits, equestrian subjects.

Ignace Konrad was a pupil at the academy of fine arts of Budapest, and became a teacher there in ...


Swiss, 20th century, male.

Born 1 July 1896, in Paris; died 24 December 1965, in Geneva.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, draughtsman, sculptor, fresco artist, illuminator. Religious subjects, portraits, landscapes. Church decoration.

Robert Lanz was the son of the sculptor Karl Alfred Lanz. He studied under the fresco painter Marcel Lenoir and went on to teach drawing and composition. He lived and worked in Paris....