Spanish sculptor, teacher, critic and scholar. He was seminal in introducing the Neo-classical style to Spain and has been justly called the prototype of the academic artist (Bédat). The 14 years he spent in Italy (1733–47) studying ancient art and the work of such artists as Alessandro Algardi and Gianlorenzo Bernini were central to his career. De Castro’s earliest training was under ...
Italian sculptor, restorer, dealer, collector and antiquary. He lived and worked all his life in the artists’ quarter of Rome. He was apprenticed to the French sculptor Pierre-Etienne Monnot from c. 1729 to 1733, and by 1732 had become a prize-winning student at the Accademia di S Luca. From the early 1730s he appears to have worked for Cardinal ...
Flemish sculptor, draughtsman and writer. He entered the Antwerp workshop of Peeter Verbrugghen the elder in 1682–3 and remained there after the latter’s death in 1686, collaborating with his son Peeter the younger. De Cock joined the Antwerp Guild in 1688–9 and, following the death of Verbrugghen the younger in ...
Italian sculptor and writer. He was among the foremost sculptors in Tuscany in the generation after Lorenzo Bartolini. His early experiments in naturalism attracted such hostile criticism that he was forced to abandon this style in favour of a sensual neo-Greek manner. His later works are marked by a richly expressive eclecticism....
Italian family of sculptors and museum officials. In 1779 Antonio d’Este (b Venice, 1754; d Rome, 13 Sept 1837) married Teresa Arrigoni in Rome. They had two sons, Giuseppe d’Este (b 1779) and Alessandro d’Este (b Rome, 10 Aug 1783...
French sculptor, designer and writer. He was one of the foremost French sculptors of the mid-18th century and is best known for his small-scale marble sculptures on gallant and allegorical themes, as well as for his widely reproduced models for the porcelain factory at Sèvres. From ...
Chinese painter, calligrapher, seal-carver, collector and poet. The son of a minor official in charge of local education, Gao developed an interest in poetry, painting and seal-carving in his early youth, when he also began to collect old seals and inkstones. The great poet Wang Shizhen took a liking to him and left instructions before his death that Gao be admitted into the ranks of his disciples. A relative of the poet, ...
Annie Scottez-De Wambrechies
French painter, draughtsman, sculptor, medallist and writer. He first trained under Claude Arnulphy at Aix, leaving for Rome c. 1761. He remained in Italy for ten years, studying the works of Raphael and other Old Masters (see fig.) as well as Polidoro da Caravaggio, whose monochrome frescoes Gibelin later imitated in France. In ...
French sculptor and writer. He worked for a goldsmith in Paris before devoting himself to sculpture, in which he was self-taught. Thanks to an allowance from an uncle who had adopted him, he was able to study sculpture in Italy in the early 1780s; there he struck up a friendship with Jacques-Louis David. On his return he was approved (...
M. J. C. Otten
Dutch etcher, draughtsman, painter, sculptor, medallist and writer. He is best known for his political caricatures of Louis XIV of France and for his prints glorifying William III, Stadholder of the Netherlands and King of England. De Hooghe is an important representative of the late Dutch Baroque. His style is characterized by strong contrasts of lights and darks and an expressive composition. In his prints he combined contemporary personalities with allegorical figures. His prints are numerous, but few of his drawings survive and his paintings are rarer still. De Hooghe’s first commission for an etching probably came from ...
Swiss, 18th – 19th century, male.
Born 17 February 1771, in Zurich; died 21 December 1832, in Rome.
Sculptor, scholar. Mythological subjects. Busts.
Keller left several busts such as those of Abbot Koch and J.J. Bodmer and mythological sculptures such as Electra at the Tomb of Agamemnon...
Swiss sculptor, historian, archaeologist and poet. A meeting with the sculptor Joseph Anton Maria Christen convinced Keller that he too must become a sculptor. Having sided with Switzerland’s revolutionaries, in 1794 he went into voluntary exile in Florence and later in Rome, where he gravitated towards the German–Danish circle of Asmus Jakob Castens and Bertel Thorvaldsen, completed his artistic training and received his first modest commissions. The marble monolith ...
German, 18th – 19th century, male.
Born 12 October 1742, in Lintorf; died 13 June 1825, in Nymphenburg.
Sculptor, modeller, art critic, porcelain painter.
Johann Peter Melchior was the father of Heinrich Anton and Georg Wilhelm. In 1762, he went to France, and then returned to Koblenz, establishing himself first in the Palatinate and later in Nymphenburg. He was one of the most famous modellers and porcelain painters of his time....
Mark D. Fullerton
Greek sculptor and writer from South Italy. He is generally regarded as the head of a school producing eclectic, neo-classical statuary related to
Italian, 18th century, male.
Born 17 August 1729, in Faenza; died 2 April 1799, in Naples.
Painter, sculptor, engraver (burin), art writer, archaeologist. Religious subjects, portraits.
A pupil of Graziani, Nicola Passeri worked mainly in Naples. Several of his paintings are found in churches in Faenza. In Naples he published ...
American, 18th – 19th century, male.
Born 15 April 1741, in Queen Anne's County (Maryland); died 22 February 1827, in Philadelphia.
Painter, engraver, sculptor, writer, inventor. Portraits, landscapes, miniatures.
Charles Willson Peale's fame, is, above all, associated with Philadelphia, the city he moved to with his family in 1776. However, this highly populated and prosperous city had no tradition of portrait painting until Peale's arrival there. As a result, he has been recognised as one of the great figures of late 18th-century art in America, changing American perception, both through his work and the institutions he was involved with or founded. He was as important to Philadelphia as Copley was to Boston, yet his start in life was not auspicious. His father, an English Post Office clerk had been exiled to the American colonies, a convicted embezzler. His family moved to Annapolis, then capital of the province of Maryland, 10 years later, just after his father's death. In Annapolis Charles Peale started his working life doing manual jobs including working as a saddler, though he seems to have painted shop signs and there was little to suggest that he would become the central figure in a great family of artists....
Japanese seal-carver, poet and editor. Afflicted by poverty in Kyoto, he moved to Osaka, where he studied Confucianism and Chinese literature with Katayama Hokkai (1723–90) and Hosoai Hansai (1727–1803) and joined the society of Chinese poetry, the Kontonshisha. He learnt seal-carving from ...
Japanese poet, seal-carver and doctor. He was born into a medical family; his father, Hashimoto Teijun, a famous doctor, had died young, and Shikin was brought up by one of Teijun’s pupils, Usui Itsuō. In his youth he studied in Kyoto, but he later succeeded to the family medical tradition in Osaka. He studied Confucianism under Suga Kankoku (...
Dutch painter, etcher, mezzotint engraver, draughtsman, instrument maker, modeller, goldsmith, shipbuilder and writer. According to Nagler, Silo worked as a master shipbuilder and sea captain until he was 30, but by c. 1694 or shortly after he had learnt how to paint from Theodor van Pee (...
British, 18th – 19th century, male.
Born 23 June 1766, in London; died 8 March 1833, in London.
Engraver (etching), draughtsman, painter, art writer. Landscapes, topographical views.
John Thomas Smith was the son of the sculptor Nathaniel Smith. He first studied under the sculptor Nollekens, then became a student at the schools of the Royal Academy, before studying under the engraver Sherwin. He exhibited landscapes at the Royal Academy in ...