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Donna J. Hassler

American sculptor. Although as a youth he showed talent for handling tools, his father, a joiner and carpenter, discouraged him from becoming a wood-carver. After opening a fruit shop in New Haven, he began carving musical instruments and furniture legs for a local cabinetmaker. With his invention of a lace-making machine, he was able to settle his business debts and devote himself entirely to sculpture....

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Julius Bryant

Italian sculptor, active also in England and the USA. Ceracchi is best known for his portrait busts of the heroes of the American Revolution, executed during his two visits to the USA (1791–2 and 1794–5), where he made a significant contribution to the introduction of ...

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Gordon Campbell

English painter and sculptor, active also in America. He worked in porcelain, plaster, and terracotta and after an early career in an artificial stone factory in London he moved c. 1792 to the Derby Porcelain Factory, where he worked as a modeller. In 1816 he emigrated to America, where he contributed architectural decoration to the University of Virginia, including the plaster of Paris friezes for the university buildings and internal plaster and lead ornaments for various buildings....

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Lauretta Dimmick

American sculptor. One of the major American Neo-classical sculptors, Crawford learnt wood-carving in his youth. In 1832 he became a carver for New York’s leading marble shop, operated by John Frazee and Robert E. Launitz (1806–70). He cut mantelpieces and busts, and spent his evenings drawing from the cast collection at the National Academy of Design. In ...

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Jennifer Wingate

American sculptor, active also in Italy. Foley was one of the women expatriate sculptors in Rome in the third quarter of the 19th century whom Henry James called “a white marmorean flock.” The historical and mythological female subjects executed by her peers, Harriet Hosmer and ...

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Sandra Sider

Folk art, or vernacular art (specific to a group or place), developed in Colonial America out of necessity when individual households produced most of the utilitarian objects required for daily life. Using traditional tools and techniques, many of these makers created pieces in which aesthetics came to play a substantial role, through form, ornamentation, or both. In some groups, notably the ...

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Janet A. Headley

American sculptor. The youngest of ten, Frazee worked as a farmhand, and was then apprenticed to a local builder. He launched his career by carving architectural ornament and gravemarkers; by 1818, local success encouraged him to establish a monument-making company with his brother William in New York. His visual repertory and his clientele expanded: a cenotaph to ...

Article

American, 18th – 19th century, male.

Active in Pennsylvania.

Born at the end of the 18th century, in France.

Painter, watercolourist, sculptor, architect. Historical subjects, allegorical subjects, figures, landscapes, urban views, architectural views.

P. Maximilian F. Godefroy exhibited several times at the Royal Academy of Arts between ...

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American, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1779, in Hubbardston (Massachusetts); died 1856, in Hubbardston.

Painter, sculptor. Portraits.

By 1803 Ethan Allen Greenwood was painting portraits at Dartmouth College. He later studied with Edward Savage in New York. He travelled through the New England states, painting portraits, and then settled in Boston....

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American, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1770, in Massachusetts; died 1842, in Roxbury (Massachusetts).

Painter. Portraits.

Rufus Hathaway was a gifted carpenter and wood sculptor, and it is said that he made his own frames. He began to paint in 1791. In 1795 he married and became a doctor in Roxbury. His paintings pay no attention to perspective. He was mainly a portrait painter, humorously arranging familiar objects and natural elements in an unexpected way around the figures....

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Margaret Moore Booker

American sculptor. Born Vinnie Ream, Hoxie was a pioneer in a field long dominated by male artists and the first woman sculptor to gain a federal commission. Her strikingly good looks and controversial lifestyle sometimes led male contemporaries to dismiss her as the “pretty chiseler of marble,” but her considerable talent and skill eventually earned her praise and commissions....

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Janet A. Headley

American sculptor, active in Italy. Ives trained as a wood-carver in New Haven, CT, and he may also have studied with the sculptor Hezekiah Augur. In 1838 Ives launched his career as a portraitist. Among the works that contributed to his rising reputation during the next two years were portraits of the professor ...

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Canadian family of artists, of French origin. Jean Levasseur (1622–86) and his brother Pierre Levasseur (1629–c. 1681) trained in France as master joiners, before settling in Quebec. From the mid-17th century they and their numerous descendants executed ornamental interiors for civil and ecclesiastical buildings, greatly contributing to the richness of French-influenced architectural decoration in churches throughout Quebec. Records in public archives show contracts and receipts for major new projects, repairs, restoration, statues, crucifixes, candlesticks, coats of arms and boat-carving undertaken by family members, many of whom remain unidentified. The most notable member of the family was the architectural sculptor ...

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American, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1757, in Salem (Massachusetts); died 1811, in Salem.

Sculptor (wood), architect.

Two wooden sculptures by McIntire are in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, and two portraits in relief of Washington, medallions on wood, are in the Essex Institute in Salem....

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Marcus Whiffen

American architect, draughtsman, and wood-carver. His father was a house carpenter, and with his two brothers he was brought up to the same trade. He went on to become a skilled draughtsman, thus qualifying himself to design buildings in whose construction he was to have no part. His work as a wood-carver included ships’ figureheads and the decoration of interiors designed by himself and of furniture designed by others—he was not himself a furniture designer or maker (...

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Elise Madeleine Ciregna

Elise Madeleine Ciregna

Term coined in the 19th century to describe the overwhelmingly dominant style in the fine and decorative arts in Europe and North America during the 18th and 19th centuries. Neo-classicism is not one distinct style, but rather the term can describe any work of architecture or art that either copies or imitates ancient art, or that represents an approach to art that draws inspiration from Classical models from ancient Greece and Rome. The most influential theorist of Neo-classicism was the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann, whose major work, ...

Article

American, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 15 April 1741, in Queen Anne's County (Maryland); died 22 February 1827, in Philadelphia.

Painter, engraver, sculptor, writer, inventor. Portraits, landscapes, miniatures.

Charles Willson Peale's fame, is, above all, associated with Philadelphia, the city he moved to with his family in 1776. However, this highly populated and prosperous city had no tradition of portrait painting until Peale's arrival there. As a result, he has been recognised as one of the great figures of late 18th-century art in America, changing American perception, both through his work and the institutions he was involved with or founded. He was as important to Philadelphia as Copley was to Boston, yet his start in life was not auspicious. His father, an English Post Office clerk had been exiled to the American colonies, a convicted embezzler. His family moved to Annapolis, then capital of the province of Maryland, 10 years later, just after his father's death. In Annapolis Charles Peale started his working life doing manual jobs including working as a saddler, though he seems to have painted shop signs and there was little to suggest that he would become the central figure in a great family of artists....

Article

Lauretta Dimmick and Rebecca Reynolds

American sculptor. He grew up in Cincinnati, OH, and his career as a sculptor began when he created animated wax figures for a tableau of Dante’s Inferno at the Western Museum in Cincinnati, where he was employed as an ‘inventor, wax-figure maker, and general mechanical contriver’. He had learnt to model clay and make plaster casts from ...

Article

Harriet F. Senie

Objects created to remind viewers of specific individuals or events (see also Public monument). At its inception, the United States faced fundamental questions of what the new nation should commemorate and what forms would be appropriate for its new form of government: democracy. Primary subjects were presidents as well as military leaders and wars that functioned as expressions of national values. Often realized long after their subject had died or ended, monuments frequently reflected the time in which they were actually built. As societal values changed, so did the form and emphasis of monuments....

Article

Canadian sculptor. He began his career as a woodworker at the beginning of the 1770s. Around 1790 he worked on the decoration of churches near his village and then produced sculpture for several parish churches in the Montreal region. Around 1800 he attempted to extend his business to the Quebec area. Quévillon’s workshop became a large-scale enterprise, employing up to 15 apprentice sculptors around ...