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Article

German, 15th century, male.

Born c. 1435; died 1504.

Painter, miniaturist, illuminator, writer, printer. Religious subjects.

School of Alsace.

Hans Baemler's name appears for the first time in 1453. He established himself in Augsburg as a printer. His name appears on two miniatures, a Crucifixion...

Article

French, 17th century, male.

Active in Grenoble.

Died 4 October 1686.

Engraver.

This artist was also a printer and bookseller. He is cited as having produced various religious subjects and portraits, dated from 1666 to 1686.

Article

Polish, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in Germany.

Born 23 May 1874, in Drohobycz (Galicia, Ukraine); died 17 June 1925, in Brunswick.

Painter, engraver (etching), illustrator, book designer, photographer. Religious subjects, scenes with figures, landscapes with figures.

Ephraïm Lilien was apprenticed to a sign painter before studying at the school of fine art, Cracow, under the painter Matejko from 1890 to 1892, after which he returned to his home town to work as a commercial painter. Lacking the means to enroll at the Vienna Academy, in 1899 he settled in Berlin, where he became friends with Börries von Münchhausen. With other figures from the Zionist Congress of 1901 he founded the publishing house Jüdischer Verlag in 1902, publishing a great many works of art and literature on the Jewish Renaissance. Also in 1902 he published the ...

Article

Judith K. Golden

Anonymous collection of in-depth typologies, based on the idea that every event in the New Testament was presaged by an event in the Old Testament ( see Typological cycles ). The Speculum humanae salvationis appeared first in manuscript form, then as Block-book s and later as incunabula. Chief among possible sources for the text is Ludolphus of Saxony (c. 1300–77), with Conradus of Altzheim, Vincent of Beauvais, Henricus Suso and Nicholas of Lyra among others also suggested authors. Like copies of the earlier Biblia pauperum, tituli and captions identify events and figures, however the Speculum humanae salvationis augments these pictures with a text that explains the illustrations. Between the early 14th century and the end of the 15th, several hundred copies, nearly all illustrated, were produced and translated from the original Latin into German, French, English, Dutch and Czech.

Typically the manuscripts include a Prologue and Prohemium, of text only; followed by forty-two chapters with four miniatures atop four text columns each of twenty-five lines; closing with three chapters with eight miniatures devoted to the Seven Stations of the Passion, the Seven Sorrows and the Seven Joys of Mary, these last three chapters not being typological. Some manuscripts omit opening texts or the final three chapters. Each opening provides a meditative, typological diptych of four images and clarifying text, for example Christ and the Last Supper as the first image, followed by Moses and the Miracle of Manna; Moses and Passover; Abraham blessed by Melchisedek. The first image contains gospel citations; the last three have captions indicating their relationship to the first....