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Article

Russian, 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born 18 February 1912, in Baku.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman, engraver, decorative designer. Religious subjects, figures, nudes, scenes with figures, landscapes, seascapes, architectural views, still-lifes, animals. Designs for tapestries, designs for mosaics, murals, church decoration.

A self-taught artist of Armenian origin, George Akopian went to France in ...

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1941, in Aricò.

Sculptor, painter, glassmaker. Religious subjects, figures, animals.

Gianni Aricò received a diploma in architecture from Venice University in 1971. In 1974 he set up his sculpture studio in the de-consecrated church of S Andrea della Zirada in Venice....

Article

Christian Norberg-Schulz

(Rynning)

(b Fredrikstad, July 6, 1882; d Biri, June 9, 1961).

Norwegian architect. He was trained as a draughtsman at the Royal School of Design in Christiania (now Oslo) from 1899 to 1902, and as an architect at the Royal Polytechnic in Stockholm from 1904 to 1906. He worked as an assistant to Erik Lallerstedt in Stockholm (1906–7) and in partnership with Ole Sverre (1865–1932), in Christiania (1907–8), where he afterwards started his own practice. Some of his larger projects were carried out in collaboration with Magnus Poulsson, including his best-known works, the Telegraph building (1916–24) and the Town Hall (1916–51; see Oslo, fig.), both in Oslo. Like Poulsson, Arneberg was a major exponent of the National Romanticism that developed after Norway gained complete independence in 1905. His project for the Royal Hunting Lodge at Voksenkollen (second prize with Sverre, 1905) represented the first clear break with the then-dominant ‘Dragon style’ (...

Article

Christian Norberg-Schulz

(Thalian)

(b Christiania [now Oslo], Jan 5, 1892; d Oslo, June 7, 1930).

Norwegian architect . He was educated at the Royal School of Design in Christiania and at the Royal Polytechnic in Stockholm (1913–15), and was a postgraduate student at the Architectural Association School in London (1919–20). After extensive travels in Italy, France and England, he started his own practice in Christiania in 1921. In his short career Backer produced some of the finest neo-classical and Modernist buildings in Norway. The Villa Larsen in Oslo (1925) is a large house of plastered brick. It is remarkably faithful to Italian prototypes, especially the garden façade with its portico of giant columns in antis; the modernity of the building is detectable in the subtlety with which Backer altered the proportions of his models.

Backer revealed his historical insight with an impressive competition project (1925–6) for the new University at Blindern in Oslo, which had an air of hidden classicism. At the Restaurant Skansen (...

Article

Chilean, 20th century, male.

Born 1927, in Paris.

Painter.

Barreda Fabres studied architecture at the Catholic university in Santiago and taught history of art in the architecture faculty from 1950 to 1955. He used a realist technique to paint constructions that belong to the world of the uncanny and the surreal. He took part in exhibitions in North America, Latin America and Europe and received many awards....

Article

Italian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 8 November 1836, in Bologna; died 1927.

Painter, watercolourist. Religious subjects, genre scenes, landscapes, architectural views.

Luigi Bazzani studied at the Accademia in Bologna and, following visits to France and Germany, was appointed professor at the Accademia in Rome. He exhibited from ...

Article

Vincent Lombard, Donato Notarnicola and Jhemel Zioua

(b Paris, June 7, 1876; d Quebec, July 5, 1944).

French architect and monk. He was the son of an architect and studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris. He was a brilliant student and obtained his diploma in 1901. After a trip to Spain and Italy, where he produced some beautiful watercolours that earned him a special mention at the Salon in Paris (1901), he decided to become a monk and entered the Benedictine monastery at Solesmes, Sarthe. At this time, religious communities exiled from France needed many new buildings, and Bellot was sent to the Netherlands in 1906 to extend a monastery there. He learnt how to build in brick, a material he used for the rest of his life, and he also became acquainted with H. P. Berlage and Modernist Dutch architecture. Bellot worked in the Netherlands and on the Isle of Wight, England, until 1920, producing many fine yet low-cost buildings in brick. His inventiveness, allied to an admiration for medieval architecture and the rationalist theories of Viollet-le-Duc, led him to develop a style that had neo-Gothic aspects, clearly expressing structure and giving an impression of lightness and balance as much as mass and weightiness, and he used brick to create both structure and decoration....

Article

Romanian, 20th century, male.

Born 14 September 1938, in Bucharest; died 4 December 2000, in Paris.

Painter, draughtsman, sculptor. Church interiors, landscapes, architectural views, still-lifes.

Conceptual Art.

Horia Bernea studied mathematics and physics at the University of Bucharest from 1955 to 1958, then followed courses at the city's school of architecture ...

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1896, in Gemona del Friuli; died 1987.

Painter, sculptor, designer of ornamental architectural features. Religious subjects, figures.

Bin exhibited busts at the Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts in Paris in 1928.

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 28 December 1891, in Tunis; died 16 February 1965, in Los Angeles.

Painter, pastellist, draughtsman. Religious subjects, genre scenes, street scenes, figures, portraits, architectural interiors, landscapes.

Orientalism.

Bismouth studied under Jules Adler (1865-1952), Auguste Pinchart (1842-1924) and Léon Bellemont in Paris. As a member of the Société des Artistes Français, he exhibited with this group ...

Article

Christian Norberg-Schulz

Norwegian architectural and furniture design partnership formed in 1922 by Gudolf Blakstad (b Gjerpen, 19 May 1893; d Oslo, 1986) and Herman Munthe-Kaas (b Christiania [now Oslo], 25 May 1890; d Oslo, 5 March 1970). Blakstad was awarded his diploma as an architect at the Norwegian Institute of Technology in Trondheim in 1916. He collaborated with Jens Dunker on the New Theatre, Oslo, from 1919 to 1929. After a preliminary training in Christiania, Munthe-Kaas finished his education at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm in 1919.

From the beginning of their careers Blakstad and Munthe-Kaas played a leading role in Norwegian architecture. After studying in Italy in the early 1920s, they advocated Neo-classicism in architectural projects, furniture designs and writings. In 1922 they won the competition for the new Town Hall in Haugesund (1924–31), a major work of 20th-century Norwegian Neo-classicism. Above a powerfully rusticated basement, the long office wing with its regular fenestration contrasts with the higher City Council Hall, accentuated by pairs of monumental, free-standing columns. In general the effect is of robust strength and an exciting interplay of horizontals and verticals....

Article

Austrian, 20th century, male.

Born 3 June 1894, in Klagenfurt; died 1966, in Vienna.

Painter, draughtsman. Figure compositions, religious subjects, figures, landscapes, still-lifes.

Herbert Boeckl studied architecture under Adolf Loos at the higher institute of technology in Vienna and taught himself to paint. He was conscripted during World War I. He exhibited mostly in Vienna, but also in Berlin where he lived in ...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1866, in Pouilly-sur-Loire; died 1944, in Fontainebleau.

Painter, watercolourist, pastellist. Figures, landscapes, urban landscapes, harbour scenes, church interiors, architectural interiors, still-lifes.

Boitiat was an inspector of primary education. He put on an exhibition at Fontainebleau in 1938. In 1986...

Article

Christian Norberg-Schulz

(b Christiania [now Oslo], March 28, 1864; d Oslo, June 2, 1953).

Norwegian architect and designer. He was trained as a draughtsman and technician in Christiania (1883–4) and completed his education as an architect in Berlin (1884–7). He started his own practice in Christiania in 1888, serving also as a teacher at the Royal School of Design there from 1908 and as director from 1912 to 1934. Early on he demonstrated an extraordinary ability as a draughtsman and a thorough knowledge of architectural history; he was equally interested in the traditional buildings of his own country and international contemporary trends. Bull’s first buildings in Christiania, such as the Paulus Church (1889–92) and Mogens Thorsen’s home for the elderly (1896–8; destr.), are historicist, although freely so. The high spire of the Gothic-Revival church, which is of red brick with details in glazed tiles, provides a landmark for Georg Bull’s earlier Grünerløkka development. In the National Theatre (...

Article

Italian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 5 November 1867, in Verona.

Painter. Figure compositions, religious subjects, portraits, architectural views.

Viscardo Carton was a pupil of Napoleone Nani at the academy in Verona, and of Luigi Cavenaghi in Milan.

He painted altar pictures and frescoes in churches and private houses....

Article

Delia Kottmann

Italian village in Lazio, north of Rome, known for its church. The church of SS Anastasius and Nonnosus is all that remains of the 6th-century Benedictine monastery, which submitted to Cluny in ad 940. Apart from some re-used fragments, the architecture is Romanesque, with a Cosmati pavement in opus sectile as well as an ambo and ciborium. The church is famous for its wall paintings from the first quarter of the 12th century. The apse and its adjacent walls, showing the 24 elders, are influenced by Romano–Christian motifs. Christ in the middle of the conch is flanked by Peter and Paul in a Traditio legis depiction, with a procession of lambs below. Underneath, Maria Regina has to be reconstructed in the middle, between two conserved angels followed by female saints in a Byzantine manner. No Romano–Christian iconography seems to have influenced the vast apocalyptic cycle painted on the side walls of the transept. A band of prophets runs beneath the roof on all the walls of the transept. An inscription in the apse indicates three Roman painters....

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1872, in Suinbiate; died 1931 or 1932, in Milan.

Painter. Church interiors, scenes with figures, urban landscapes, winter landscapes, urban views, architectural views, seascapes.

Achille Cattaneo belonged to the group of the Last Verists, and participated in the Venice Biennale in 1926....

Article

[CESCM]

French organization founded in Poitiers in 1953. The Centre d’études supérieures de civilisation médiévale (CECSM) is affiliated with the Université de Poitiers, the Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), and the Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication. The founders, among them historian Edmond-René Labande and art historian René Crozet, began CESCM as a month-long interdisciplinary study of medieval civilization, inviting foreign students to participate. CESCM has since developed into a permanent organization but maintains the international and interdisciplinary focus of its founders.

CESCM continues to hold its formative summer session, known as ‘Les Semaines d’études médiévales’, and invites advanced graduate students of all nationalities. The summer session spans two weeks and includes sessions on a variety of topics, each conducted by a member or affiliate of CESCM. CESCM supports collaborative research groups and regularly holds colloquia attended by the international scholarly community.

Since 1958 CECSM has published ...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in Paris.

Painter, draughtsman. Genre scenes, church interiors, interiors with figures, landscapes, architectural views.

Cesbron was the son of Achille Théodore Cesbron. He is particularly known for his Corner for the Poor, Abbey Church of Fécamp, View of a Monastery...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 2 February 1823, in Paris; died 1907, in Paris.

Painter, watercolourist, designer. Church interiors, landscapes, urban landscapes, architectural views. Stage sets.

Philippe Chaperon was set designer at the Opéra in Paris, producing most of the sets for French subsidised theatres, as well as the main theatres in France and abroad and the Expositions Universelles. He painted watercolours based on nature. He was the father of Eugène and Émile Chaperon, who took over from him....