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Article

Christian Norberg-Schulz

Norwegian architectural and furniture design partnership formed in 1922 by Gudolf Blakstad (b Gjerpen, 19 May 1893; d Oslo, 1986) and Herman Munthe-Kaas (b Christiania [now Oslo], 25 May 1890; d Oslo, 5 March 1970). Blakstad was awarded his diploma as an architect at the Norwegian Institute of Technology in Trondheim in 1916. He collaborated with Jens Dunker on the New Theatre, Oslo, from 1919 to 1929. After a preliminary training in Christiania, Munthe-Kaas finished his education at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm in 1919.

From the beginning of their careers Blakstad and Munthe-Kaas played a leading role in Norwegian architecture. After studying in Italy in the early 1920s, they advocated Neo-classicism in architectural projects, furniture designs and writings. In 1922 they won the competition for the new Town Hall in Haugesund (1924–31), a major work of 20th-century Norwegian Neo-classicism. Above a powerfully rusticated basement, the long office wing with its regular fenestration contrasts with the higher City Council Hall, accentuated by pairs of monumental, free-standing columns. In general the effect is of robust strength and an exciting interplay of horizontals and verticals....

Article

Stefan Muthesius

[Wenzel]

(b Ehrenbreitstein, Nov 23, 1775; d Weimar, Oct 4, 1845).

German architect. He worked under Christian Friedrich Schuricht in Dresden in the 1790s before studying in Paris at the Ecole Polytechnique (1800–04) under Jean-Nicolas-Louis Durand; he visited Rome in 1804–5. Most of his life was spent in Weimar, where he was appointed Oberbaudirektor (1816) to the Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, one of the smaller and poorer of the German states, for which most of his work was undertaken. This included the Erfurter Tor (1822–4), the Bürgerschule (1822–5), the Wagenremise (1823) and the Hoftheater (1825–9; destr. 1905), plain buildings strongly influenced by Durand. Coudray also founded a school for building workers, the Freie Gewerkschule (1829). Weimar’s most eminent citizen, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, took a close interest in Coudray’s work, including his only major Greek Revival building, the Fürstengruft (1823–7). This mausoleum was commissioned by Grand Duke ...

Article

Adrian von Buttlar

(b Breslau, Silesia [now Wrocław, Poland], Feb 5, 1766; d Berlin, Oct 3, 1811).

German architect. He studied drawing and architecture in Berlin from 1782 under Karl Philipp Christian von Gontard and Asmus Jakob Carstens. Between 1790 and 1795 he travelled to Italy, England and France, spending three years in Rome and studying Greek temples at Paestum and in Sicily. From 1798 he was Professor of Civic Design at the newly founded Bauakademie in Berlin and in 1810 was appointed Court Building Adviser. Together with his brother-in-law Friedrich Gilly (see Gilly family, §2) and Carl Gotthard Longhans, Gentz was the most prominent representative of Neo-classicism in Prussia prior to Karl Friedrich Schinkel. His chief work was the Royal Mint (1798–1800; destr. 1886), Berlin, which also housed the Bauakademie and the Chief Building Department until 1836. The cuboid corps de logis had a battered and rusticated lower floor surmounted by a frieze carved in sandstone and bronzed to a design by ...

Article

Christian Norberg-Schulz

(b Copenhagen, Jan 21, 1801; d Christiania [now Oslo], March 4, 1865).

Norwegian architect of Danish birth. He was educated at the Royal School of Design in Christiania, where his father, Heinrich August Grosch (1763–1843), a landscape painter and engraver of German origin, worked as an instructor. From 1820 to 1824 Christian Heinrich studied at the Royal Danish Academy of Art under C. F. Hansen. On his return to Christiania, he worked as a draughtsman under Hans Ditlev Franciscus Linstow from 1824 to 1827, and in 1828 he was appointed City Architect of Christiania, where he also served as a teacher at the Royal School of Design. In 1814 Norway had been liberated from Danish rule, and although the country was still united with Sweden under a common king, its new political status created a need for public buildings. Grosch was therefore soon awarded important public commissions in Christiania, of which the first was the state hospital (1826–42; destr.). He demonstrated a secure grasp of the classical idiom in the Stock Exchange (...

Article

Ramón Gutiérrez and Liliana Herrera

[Buix, José Domingo ]

(b Petrés, Valencia, June 9, 1759; d 1811).

Spanish architect and Capuchin monk, active in Colombia. He trained with his father, the stonemason Domingo Buix. Joining the Capuchin Order in 1780, he was sent to Murcia, where he studied at an art school directed by Francisco Salzillo y Alcarez. In 1792 he was posted to Santa Fe de Bogotá, Colombia, where he took over and concluded the work on the hospice of S José and quickly achieved a well-deserved renown in the viceroyalty of New Granada. He provided designs for S Domingo, Bogotá (1794), and the basilica of the Virgin of Chiquinquirá (1796–1823), where his use of an ambulatory recalls the work of Diego de Siloé at Granada. He designed Bogotá observatory (1802) and the cathedral of Zipaquirá (1805), 40 km north of the capital, but his masterpiece is Bogotá Cathedral (1806–14), which he rebuilt in the Neo-classical style. Petrés also undertook civil engineering work, such as the conduits and basin for the fountain of S Victoriano, and several bridges, including that of El Topo at Tunja (...

Article

Teresa Gisbert

(d La Paz, 1834).

Catalan architect, active in Bolivia. He was a Franciscan friar and the leading architect in Bolivia between 1800 and 1830 (see Bolivia, Republic of §II 2., (i)). In 1808 he was called to Potosí to design the cathedral in a predominantly Neo-classical style coexisting with reminiscences of the Baroque. There were brief interruptions in its construction, and it was not finished until 1838. In Potosí he also redesigned the church of S Domingo. He interrupted his work there to execute the principal altar (1820) of the church of La Merced, Cuzco, and a new retable (1830) for the church of La Merced, La Paz. Shortly after he commenced work on a new cathedral for La Paz (for illustration see La Paz), although only the ground storey was completed before his death; the works were continued by the French engineer Philippe Bertrès and completed in the early 20th century by ...