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Alexandra Wedgwood

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Sandra L. Tatman

(Francis)

(b Philadelphia, PA, April 29, 1881; d Philadelphia, PA, April 23, 1950).

African American architect. Born and educated in Philadelphia, Abele was the chief designer in the firm of Horace Trumbauer. Unknown for most of his life, Julian Abele has become renowned as a pioneer African American architect.

Abele attended the Institute for Colored Youth and Brown Preparatory School before enrolling at the Pennsylvania Museum School of Industrial Art, where in 1898 he earned his Certificate in Architectural Drawing and the Frederick Graff Prize for work in Architectural Design, Evening Class Students. Abele then enrolled at the University of Pennsylvania. Again he distinguished himself in the architectural program, and at his 1902 graduation he was awarded the prestigious Arthur Spayd Brooke Memorial Prize. Abele’s work was also exhibited in the Toronto Architectural Club (1901), the T-Square Club Annual Exhibition (1901–2), and the Pittsburgh Architectural Club annual exhibition of 1903.

As an undergraduate Abele worked for Louis C. Hickman (...

Article

British, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 12 October 1854, in Edinburgh; died 1929, in North Berwick.

Painter (including gouache). Interiors with figures, landscapes, urban landscapes, gardens, urban views, architectural views, interiors, portraits.

Having studied at the Royal Scottish Academy under George Paul Chalmers and MacTaggart, Patrick Adam went on to exhibit at the Royal Scottish Academy at the age of 18 and at the London Royal Academy ...

Article

British, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in England between 1873 and 1902.

Architect, painter.

Cole Adams handled mainly architectural subjects and exhibited six works at the London Royal Academy in about 1880.

Article

T. Affleck Greeves

(b Burgess Hill, Sussex, 1849; d London, Aug 17, 1933).

English architect, editor and draughtsman. After completing his articles with H. N. Goulty of Brighton, he became assistant to William Ralph Emerson, and Architect to Brighton Council. Between 1872 and 1923 he was Editor of Building News. He instituted the Building News Designing Club, which enabled young architects to submit designs for his criticism. He contributed largely to the paper’s illustrations, redrawing designs for lithographic reproduction, and covered a wide range of subjects in a skilful and accurate, if somewhat dull, linear style. He also published several architectural books. Through the owner of Building News he obtained his major architectural commissions, notably Camberwell Polytechnic and Art Gallery (1902). He also designed country houses near London, for example Queensmead Cottage, Kings Road, Windsor, Berks (1883), for Reginald Talbot, as well as in Australia (e.g. Bellevue Hill, Double Bay, for Charles B. Fairfax in the mid-1880s) and America, where he designed timber houses in New Jersey for E. S. Wilde in ...

Article

(b Berlin, Oct 15, 1827; d Berlin, Sept 15, 1908).

German architect, archaeologist and writer. He was one of the leading figures of Berlin’s architectural establishment in the latter half of the 19th century. On completion of his studies in 1852, he was given the prestigious post of Bauleiter at the Neues Museum in Berlin, designed by Friedrich August Stüler. He subsequently became a lecturer and in 1861 a professor of architectural history at the Bauakademie in Berlin. Many of his church buildings used medieval motifs and elements, for example the Christuskirche (1862–8) in Berlin and the Elisabethkirche (1869–72) in Wilhelmshafen. He followed Karl Bötticher in his attempts to merge medieval and classical elements, best illustrated in his design for the Thomaskirche (competition 1862; built 1865–70), Berlin. There, Adler used Gothic structural devices embellished with rich Renaissance detail, a tendency that was also present in many of the entries for the Berlin Cathedral competition (...

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(b Bowdon, Cheshire, 1868; d London, April 11, 1946).

English architect and urban planner. The son of a landscape painter, he was apprenticed to an architect in Manchester in 1885. He went to London in 1890, where he built up experience in well-known architectural offices, notably with George Sherrin (d 1909) and William Flockhart (d 1913). His brief and shrewd recollections of these years are a valuable record of prosperous London practice in the 1890s. He gradually gained a reputation as a perspectivist but his architectural career was slow to develop. The library and assembly rooms at Ramsgate, Kent (1904), and offices for the Bennett Steamship Co., Southwark, London (1908), show his preference for an individual, refined Georgian-revival style.

In 1909 Adshead became Professor of Town Planning at Liverpool University and inaugurated the Department of Civic Design, the first town-planning school in Britain, with Patrick Abercrombie as his deputy. In 1910...

Article

Gordon Campbell

[Società Cooperativa Aemilia Ars]

Workshop founded in Bologna in 1898 by the architect Alfonso Rubbiani (1848–1913), modelled on the English Arts and Crafts Movement; its formal name was Società Cooperativa Aemilia Ars. At first the workshop produced a wide range of products, including glass and pottery, but from 1902 to 1914 its principal products were textiles, especially lace....

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French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 30 May 1855, in Bordeaux; died 12 November 1933, in Caudéran (Bordeaux).

Painter, illustrator. Architectural views.

Daniel Alaux was the grandson of Jean-Paul Alaux, otherwise known as Gentil. He studied under Pierre Victor Galland, and later Léon Bonnat at the École des Beaux-Arts de Paris ...

Article

British, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1832; died 1913.

Painter, draughtsman. Landscapes with figures, architectural views.

George Alexander worked as an architect. He exhibited two architectural drawings (portals of a church) and a painting, Far from the Crowd (1897-1899), at the Royal Academy in London....

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Article

Alig  

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Draughtsman.

Alig was the nephew of the engraver Marcel-Paul Fleury. He studied architecture at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. Between 1908 and 1922, he drew several hundred sketches, now highly valued. The École des Beaux-Arts in Paris has named an annual prize after him....

Article

British, 19th – 20th century, female.

Draughtsman, designer of ornamental architectural features.

Kate Allen worked in New Cross. She created modern designs for silver ornaments, and her extremely ornate enamel jewellery was greatly appreciated.

Article

Austrian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 16 August 1821, in Vienna; died c. 1914, in Vienna.

Painter (gouache), watercolourist. Landscapes, waterscapes, architectural views.

Franz von Alt was trained by his father, Jacob, who was a landscape painter. He continued his training in portrait painting at the academy of fine art in Vienna, but later devoted himself to painting landscapes and architectural views....

Article

Mark Firth and Louis Skoler

Silvery white metal. The third most abundant element in the earth’s crust (after oxygen and silicon), aluminium is found only in the form of its compounds, such as alumina or aluminium oxide. Its name is derived from alumen, the Latin name for alum, and in the 18th century the French word alumine was proposed for the oxide of the metal, then undiscovered. The name aluminium was adopted in the early 19th century and is used world-wide except in the USA, where the spelling is aluminum, and in Italy where alluminio is used. Following the discovery of processes for separating the metal from the oxide, at first experimentally in 1825, then commercially in 1854 and industrially in 1886–8, aluminium rapidly came to be valued as an adaptable material with both functional and decorative properties. Thus in addition to being used in engineering, transport, industrial design and household products, it was also widely adopted in architecture, sculpture and the decorative arts....

Article

Monica E. Kupfer

(b Santiago de Veraguas, March 25, 1869; d Panama City, Nov 12, 1952).

Panamanian painter, draughtsman and printmaker. He is known chiefly as the designer of the national flag (1903) of Panama. He studied business administration and had a long career in public office. When Panama became independent in 1903, he became Secretario de Hacienda and in 1904 Consul-General ad-honorem to Hamburg. In 1908 he moved to New York, where he studied with Robert Henri, who strongly influenced his style of vigorous drawing, loose brushwork, distorted expressionist images and sombre colours, as in Head Study (1910; Panama City, R. Miró priv. col.; see Miró). He produced most of his work between 1910 and 1914 and again after the late 1930s; his main subject was the human figure, but he also painted portraits, landscapes and still-lifes. On his return to Panama in the 1930s he worked as an auditor in the Contraloría General. After his retirement he resumed painting and produced some of his most passionate works, such as ...

Article

Canadian, 19th – 20th century, female.

Painter. Landscapes, architectural views.

Montreal (MBA): Our House; Study of Trees; Landscape

Article

(b Edinburgh, April 5, 1834; d Edinburgh, June 1, 1921).

Scottish architect. He was the dominant figure in Scottish architecture during the late Victorian and Edwardian periods. The son of a solicitor, he abandoned legal training in 1852 to begin an architectural career in the office of John Lessels, a leading practitioner in Edinburgh. He studied at the Trustees’ Academy and was influenced by Alexander Christie, director of its School of Design. In 1857 Anderson joined George Gilbert Scott’s staff in London, leaving for a continental tour in 1859 and returning to Edinburgh in 1860 as a civilian architect with the Royal Engineers. While attached to the Engineers, he designed a number of small Episcopal churches that show his mastery of the archaeologically accurate Gothic style popularized in England by the Ecclesiological Society, for example All Saints, Edinburgh (1866–78).

He began independent practice in 1868 and shortly afterwards published a book of measured drawings from his foreign tour. In ...

Article

Portuguese, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in Italy.

Born 1839 or 1843, in Lisbon; died 1915, in Genoa.

Painter, architect. Landscapes.

After a visit to the 1855 Exposition Universelle in Paris, Alfredo d'Andrade settled in Genoa, where he lived for four or five years while studying at the academy of fine art with Tammar Luxoro. Following that, in ...