1-11 of 11 results  for:

  • Architecture and Urban Planning x
  • Eighteenth-Century Art x
  • Ceramics and Pottery x
Clear all


Ingrid Sattel Bernardini

(b Gotha, Dec 27, 1725; d Vienna, March 23, 1806).

German sculptor, painter and architect. He was the son of a court gardener who worked first in Gotha and then in Württemberg. He was originally intended to become an architect; in 1747 Duke Charles-Eugene of Württemberg sent him to train in Paris where, under the influence of painters such as Charles-Joseph Natoire and François Boucher, he turned to painting. The eight-year period of study in Rome that followed prompted Beyer to devote himself to sculpture, as he was impressed by antique works of sculpture and was also influenced by his close contacts with Johann Joachim Winckelmann and his circle. He also served an apprenticeship with Filippo della Valle, one of the main representatives of the Neo-classical tendency in sculpture. In 1759 Beyer returned to Germany, to take part in the decoration of Charles-Eugene’s Neues Schloss in Stuttgart.

In Stuttgart Beyer made an important contribution to the founding and improvement of facilities for the training of artists, notably at the Akademie, and to manufacture in the field of arts and crafts, particularly at the ...


Alastair Laing

(b Paris, Sept 29, 1703; d Paris, May 30, 1770).

French painter, draughtsman and etcher. Arguably it was he, more than any other artist, who set his stamp on both the fine arts and the decorative arts of the 18th century. Facilitated by the extraordinary proliferation of engravings, Boucher successfully fed the demand for imitable imagery at a time when most of Europe sought to follow what was done at the French court and in Paris. He did so both as a prolific painter and draughtsman (he claimed to have produced some 10,000 drawings during his career) and through engravings after his works, the commercial potential of which he seems to have been one of the first artists to exploit. He reinvented the genre of the pastoral, creating an imagery of shepherds and shepherdesses as sentimental lovers that was taken up in every medium, from porcelain to toile de Jouy, and that still survives in a debased form. At the same time, his manner of painting introduced the virtuosity and freedom of the sketch into the finished work, promoting painterliness as an end in itself. This approach dominated French painting until the emergence of Neo-classicism, when criticism was heaped on Boucher and his followers. His work never wholly escaped this condemnation, even after the taste for French 18th-century art started to revive in the second half of the 19th century. In his own day, the fact that he worked for both collectors and the market, while retaining the prestige of a history painter, had been both Boucher’s strength and a cause of his decline....


Hans Ottomeyer

The name derives from the first French Empire under Napoleon I (see Bonaparte family, §1). The dates defining the period of the Empire historically (1804–14) and the duration of the style itself are at variance: the early phase, referred to by contemporaries as ‘le goût antique’, was a late form of Neo-classicism and became more developed as the chaos resulting from the French Revolution subsided c. 1797. The Directoire style and the Consulate style—terms similarly derived from political periods in France—were both part of the development of the Empire style.

The term was originally applied to architecture, but because Napoleon rejected the building of new castles and palaces as wasteful, the style was especially used in interior design and decoration, later being extended to other decorative arts and fashion. There was strong conscious allusion to the civilization of imperial Rome through the building forms and motifs used by the first Roman emperors, who pursued goals of internal peace and a new order together with an expansionist military policy, as did Napoleon. Personal taste and comfort became of secondary importance to the demonstration of wealth and power. The Empire style spread throughout Europe and acquired fresh impetus with the Napoleonic conquests....


Bernadette Nelson

Portuguese ceramics factory. It was founded in the borough of Porto de Mós, near Leiria, in 1770 by the painter and architect José Rodrigues da Silva e Sousa (d 1824). In 1784 the factory received the designation ‘Royal’ and the protection of Sebastião de Carvalho e Melo, the 1st Marquês of Pombal. The factory had two very distinct periods of production. During the first 30 years it produced blue-and-white tableware that was influenced in style and decoration by the Real Fábrica do Rato. Many pieces are distinctive for their recurring semi-abstract, leaf-like motifs, shaded in blue or manganese-purple, surrounded by chains of beads. During the second period, under the direction of José Luís Fernandes da Fonseca, wares were decorated with more sober decoration in manganese-purple. Important painters who worked at the factory at this time included João Coelho Pó and Manuel Coelho. Fonseca’s son Bernardino José da Fonseca directed the factory from ...


Damie Stillman

Architectural and decorative arts style that flourished in the USA from shortly after the acknowledgement of independence in the Treaty of Paris (1783) until c. 1820. The term is derived from the period surrounding the creation of the federal constitution in 1787 and was in use in a political sense by that year. Essentially it was a form of Neo-classicism, strongly influenced by manifestations of that style in England and, to a lesser extent, in France; but at times certain more conservative qualities inherited from the previous Colonial period are also present. The inspiration of European, and especially English, Neo-classical architecture was to be expected in a society grounded in that of 18th-century England; but an added impetus was the association often cited at the time between the fledgling American republic and the ancient Roman one.

Although a few indications of European Neo-classical influence are found in the American colonies before the Revolution began in ...


German, 18th century, male.

Born 1683, in Dresden; died December 1753, in Meissen.

Painter, architect.

The son of H.C. Fehling, Carl Fehling taught at the school of drawing at the Meissen porcelain factory. His drawings and the engravings he made from them were held in the Dresden print collection....


Danish, 18th century, male.

Born 23 December 1711, of German origin; died 16 July 1761, in Kastrup.

Sculptor, potter, architect.

Jakob Fortling was a court sculptor in Copenhagen, where he founded a porcelain factory in 1760.


Danish, 18th century, male.

Active in Copenhagen.

Painter, architect.

Between 1775 and 1787, Ondrup worked at the royal porcelain factory in Copenhagen. Two miniature portraits by this artist dated from 1783 are in the Museum der Arbeit in Hamburg.


(b Bruges, April 1, 1698; d Bruges, Feb 17, 1781).

Flemish sculptor, architect and potter. He was probably first trained in his father’s carpenter’s workshop; in 1715 he was registered in Bruges as a master carpenter. He then worked with the Ghent sculptor Jan Boecksent (1660–1727), who had been assigned to decorate the Récolets church in Bruges and who was involved in the creation of the academy of Bruges. In 1722 Pulinx was appointed sculptor and decorator of municipal works, and in 1724 he became a member of a confraternity of painters that arose from the dissolution of the academy. During that period Pulinx worked mainly in wood, creating chiefly ecclesiastical furnishings, including some beautiful pulpits in the Watervleit church (1726) and in the Church of St Walburga at Furnes and the Heilig Bloedbaziliek at Bruges (both 1728). During the following decade he seems to have worked exclusively as an architect; among his works were his own house, In den Keerseboom (...



Richard John and Ludwig Tavernier

A decorative style of the early to mid-18th century, primarily influencing the ornamental arts in Europe, especially in France, southern Germany and Austria. The character of its formal idiom is marked by asymmetry and naturalism, displaying in particular a fascination with shell-like and watery forms. Further information on the Rococo can be found in this dictionary within the survey articles on the relevant countries.

Richard John

The nature and limits of the Rococo have been the subject of controversy for over a century, and the debate shows little sign of resolution. As recently as 1966, entries in two major reference works, the Penguin Dictionary of Architecture and the Enciclopedia universale dell’arte (EWA), were in complete contradiction, one altogether denying its status as a style, the other claiming that it ‘is not a mere ornamental style, but a style capable of suffusing all spheres of art’. The term Rococo seems to have been first used in the closing years of the 18th century, although it was not acknowledged by the ...


revised by Margaret Barlow

A renewed interest among artists, writers, and collectors between c. 1820 and 1870 in Europe, predominantly in France, in the Rococo style in painting, the decorative arts, architecture, and sculpture. The revival of the Rococo served diverse social needs. As capitalism and middle-class democracy triumphed decisively in politics and the economy, the affluent and well-born put increasing value on the aristocratic culture of the previous century: its arts, manners and costumes, and luxury goods.

Among the earliest artists in the 19th century to appreciate and emulate 18th-century art were Jules-Robert Auguste (1789–1830), R. P. Bonington, Eugène Delacroix, and Paul Huet. For these young artists the Rococo was a celebration of sensual and sexual pleasure and a product of a free and poetic imagination. Looking particularly at the work of Watteau, they sought to reproduce the Rococo capacity for lyrical grace, its sophisticated understanding of colour, and its open, vibrant paint surfaces in their work. These qualities can be seen in such re-creations of 18th-century scenes as Eugène Lami’s ...