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John Wilton-Ely

Neo-classical style of architectural and interior design; as Egyptomania or Egyptiennerie it reached its peak during the late 18th century and early 19th. Napoleon’s campaign in Egypt (1798) coincided with emerging tastes both for monumental and for richly ornamental forms, enhanced by the literary and associational concerns of Romanticism. Unlike its Greek and Gothic counterparts, the Egyptian Revival never constituted a coherent movement with ethical or social implications. Indeed, since its earliest manifestations occurred in the later Roman Empire, the Revival itself can be seen as one in a series of sporadic waves of European taste in art and design (often linked to archaeological inquiry), acting as an exotic foil to the Classical tradition with which this taste was and remains closely involved (see fig.). On a broader plane of inquiry, the study of Egyptian art and architecture has continued to promote a keen awareness of abstraction in design and a decorative vocabulary of great sophistication. These are among the most enduring contributions of ancient Egypt to Western art and design. ...


Gérard Rousset-Charny

(b St Ouen, nr Paris, June 7, 1737; d Paris, Dec 29, 1818).

French architect and designer. He was the son of the gardener at the royal château of Choisy-le-Roi and attended Jacques-François Blondel’s school of architecture, the Ecole des Arts, winning third place in the Prix de Rome competition of 1759. He spent five years in Rome (1761–6) on a bursary granted by Louis XV, and he made friends there with Giovanni Battista Piranesi. He returned to France via Holland and England. In 1769, at the suggestion of the King’s surgeon Germain Pichault de la Martinière, he was commissioned to design the new Ecole de Chirurgie (1771–86; now the Faculté de Médecine, Paris). The layout is in the manner of an hôtel particulier, with a court surrounded by an Ionic colonnade and closed off from the present Rue de l’Ecole de Médecine by a columnar screen. It was this feature that made a great impression on Gondoin’s contemporaries, lacking as it does the usual inflections by projecting end pavilions and central ...


David Watkin

Term used to describe a style inspired by the architecture of Classical Greece that was popular throughout Europe and the USA in the early 19th century, especially for the design of public buildings; it was also employed for furniture and interior design. Its gradual spread coincided with and was dependent on the growth of archaeology in Greece in the 18th and 19th centuries. Such archaeologist–architects as James Stuart (known as ‘Athenian’ Stuart in his lifetime) and Nicholas Revett, William Wilkins and C. R. Cockerell in England, Jacques-Ignace Hittorff and Henri Labrouste in France and Leo von Klenze in Germany were responsible for generating a remarkably self-conscious architectural revival; Cockerell used the term ‘Greek revival’ at least as early as 1842 in his lectures delivered as Professor of Architecture at the Royal Academy. The style was first used in mid-18th-century England for garden buildings in such houses as Hagley Hall (Hereford & Worcs) and ...


Sarah Medlam

(b Paris, Oct 9, 1795; d Paris, 1872).

French cabinetmaker. He was the son of Charles-Joseph Lemarchand (1759–1826), a cabinetmaker of repute in Paris during the Empire period. He first studied architecture but in 1813 entered the military academy at Saint Cyr. He was a strong supporter of Napoleon and was later awarded the Légion d’honneur. After the Battle of Waterloo (1815) he returned to Paris to take over his father’s firm. In 1846 he entered into a partnership with André Lemoyne and retired in 1852, although the firm continued under Lemoyne until 1893. Lemarchand became official cabinetmaker to both Charles X and Louis-Philippe, supplying furniture for at least five royal palaces. Furniture from these commissions includes bookcases in Boulle marquetry (Versailles, Château) and two consoles (1838; Versailles, Grand Trianon). He showed his wares at the Exposition des Produits de l’Industrie of 1844 in Paris but in general he seems to have shunned this method of publicity and to have dealt successfully with a large private clientele. He continued to produce his furniture in the Empire style, a taste that clearly accorded with his political preferences. The craftsmanship of his work remained high and dating can be difficult, although after ...


N. A. Yevsina

[Kvarengi, Dzhakomo]

(b Rota d’Imagna, Bergamo, Sept 20, 1744; d St Petersburg, March 1, 1817).

Italian architect and interior designer, active in Russia. He studied painting, first in Bergamo and then in Rome (from 1763), in the studios of Anton Raphael Mengs and Stefano Pozzi, before studying architecture (1767–9) with Paolo Posi, Antoine Deriset and the latter’s pupil Niccolà Giansimoni (d 1800). His contacts with enlightened artistic circles in Rome, with their enthusiasm for antiquity and the ideals of Neo-classicism, were important and bore fruit in his later work. A period in Venice (1771–2), where he was studying the works of Palladio, brought him into contact with members of the British community there, through whom he secured a few English commissions, such as the altar (1772–4) in the Roman Catholic private chapel of Henry Arundell at Wardour Castle, Wilts. Quarenghi later visited the south of France (1778–9) and was much interested in the work of Charles de Wailly and Claude-Nicolas Ledoux, which confirmed his commitment to Neo-classicism. His first major commission (...


Irene Helmreich-Schoeller

(b Versailles, Feb 6, 1753; d Nantes, March 11, 1839).

French architect and designer, also active in Germany. He studied at the Académie Royale d’Architecture in Paris. Two elevations (Frankfurt am Main, Hist. Mus.; Paris, Archv Mnmnts Hist.) provide evidence that he was involved in the design of Cardinal Edouard de Rohan’s new château (1779–89) at Saverne, Alsace; this is an enormous building that incorporates a continuous giant order on its façade. Apart from designs for churches in Mertzweiler, Mauersmünster, Rosenheim and Weyersheim, all in Alsace, which were only partially implemented, other activity in France was limited. In the 1770s he had contact with Pierre Michel d’Ixnard, who was working for Clemens-Wenzeslaus von Sachsen, Archbishop of Trier, on the construction of his Residenz (1776–9) in Koblenz, and this was important for Salins’s further career. He probably worked for d’Ixnard as a draughtsman, and was doubtless responsible for the first designs for the Residenz in Koblenz, which were submitted to the archbishop in ...


József Sisa

(b Biala, Galicia [now Bialsko-Biala, Poland], Oct 14, 1846; d Budapest, July 11, 1915).

Hungarian architect, painter and interior designer of German descent. He studied in Karlsruhe and Vienna, and in 1868 he went to Budapest where he worked first in the offices of Antal Szkalnitzky and Miklós Ybl. His designs included the sepulchral monument (1871–2) of Count Lajos Batthyány in the Kerepesi cemetery, Budapest, and other monuments and pedestals for statues. In 1894 he entered into partnership with Fülöp Herzog (1860–1925), with whom he designed the neo-classical architectural ensemble of Heroes’ Square, which terminates the 2.5 km long Radial Avenue (Sugár út, now Andrássy út). In the middle stands the Millenary Monument (1894–1900), a semicircular double colonnade with bronze figures of Hungarian sovereigns and a single, tall Corinthian column with sculpture by György Zala, which commemorates the 1000th anniversary of the Magyar conquest. On opposite sides of the square they built the Art Hall (1895–6), a porticoed red-brick structure with multicoloured terracotta decoration, and the ...