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Article

Irma B. Jaffe

(b New Brunswick, NJ, Aug 15, 1922; d Northampton, MA, June 3, 2000).

American sculptor, illustrator and printmaker. Baskin studied at the New York University School of Architecture and Allied Arts (1939–41), the School of Fine Art (1941–3) and New School for Social Research (1949). He also studied at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière in Paris (1950) and the Accademia delle Belle Arti in Florence (1951). Inspired by the iconic, monolithic imagery of Ancient Egyptian and Sumerian art, and the similar stylistic qualities of Romanesque and Italian Gothic, he consistently and inventively made use of the archaic mode in such prints as the powerful woodcut Man of Peace (1952; see Fern and O’Sullivan, p. 61) as well as in his sculpture. A traditionalist, he carved in wood and stone, and modelled in clay, taking the human figure as his subject. He firmly believed that painting and sculpture should mediate between artist and viewer some moral insight about human experience, and he was convinced that abstract art could not do this. Throughout his career he rejected spatial penetration of form, preferring the holistic look of such works as the ...

Article

Fiorella Sricchia Santoro

(di Giacomo di Pace)

(b Cortine in Valdibiana Montaperti, 1484; d Siena, between Jan and May 1551).

Italian painter, sculptor, draughtsman, printmaker and illuminator. He was one of the protagonists, perhaps even the most precocious, of Tuscan Mannerism, which he practised with a strong sense of his Sienese artistic background but at the same time with an awareness of contemporary developments in Florence and Rome. He responded to the new demand for feeling and fantasy while retaining the formal language of the early 16th century. None of Beccafumi’s works is signed or dated, but his highly personal maniera has facilitated almost unanimous agreement regarding the definition of his corpus and the principal areas of influence on it. However, some questions concerning the circumstances of his early career and the choices available to him remain unanswered. The more extreme forms of Beccafumi’s reckless experimentation underwent a critical reappraisal only in the later 20th century.

The primary sources of information concerning Beccafumi are Vasari’s biography (1568) and archival findings, mostly 19th century, relating to the artist. Vasari, although a direct acquaintance of Beccafumi in his last years and in a position to gather information from mutual friends, was, predictably, unreliable in regard to his early career. According to Vasari, Mecherino, the son of a poor farmer named Giacomo di Pace, became the protégé of ...

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 30 January 1782, in Bordeaux; died 21 February 1863, in Paris.

Painter (including gouache), engraver, lithographer, illustrator. Historical subjects, mythological subjects, genre scenes, architectural interiors. Wall decorations, low reliefs.

Studied initially in Bordeaux under Pierre Lacour the Elder, then became a pupil of Vincent and David. He exhibited on a regular basis at Salons between ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 1896, in Algiers; died 1966, in New Delhi, as the result of an accident.

Architect, sculptor, painter, screen printer, illustrator.

Groupe Espace.

Bloc was an engineer at the École Centrale in 1920. Being in contact with Frantz, Francis Jourdain, Mallet-Stevens, Le Corbusier and Auguste Perret, he founded the review entitled ...

Article

French, 16th century, male.

Born c. 1490, in Soucy, near Sens; died c. 1560, in Paris.

Painter, sculptor, engraver, illustrator, architect.

First Fontainebleau School.

It seems incontrovertible that Jean Cousin was a painter and an engraver. His activity as an architect seems to have been limited to the publication in ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 27 February 1896; died June 1964.

Watercolourist, pastellist, painter (gouache), engraver, illustrator, sculptor. Figures, nudes, portraits, interiors with figures, still-lifes, landscapes, architectural views. Designs for stained glass.

Pierre Albert Génolhac studied at the Nice art school from 1917 to 1918...

Article

Jacques Thirion

(b c. 1510; d ?Bologna, c. 1565).

French sculptor, illustrator and architect. He was one of the great masters of relief sculpture. Through his collaboration with the architect Pierre Lescot he was involved in many major building projects, and in his refined relief sculptures, such as the carved panels for the Fountain of the Innocents, Paris, he achieved a highly personal synthesis between the mannered style of the Fontainebleau school and a classicism derived from his study of antique sculpture. He illustrated with skilful and lively wood-engravings Jean Baptiste Martin I’s first complete French translation (Paris, 1547) of Vitruvius, De architectura: Architecture ou art de bien bastir, an edition that was to have considerable influence on the revival of the classical style in France.

Goujon was possibly of Norman origin, and the knowledge of the sculpture and architecture of anti-quity and the Italian Renaissance displayed in his works suggests that he spent time in Italy. He is first recorded at Rouen in ...

Article

Romanian, 20th century, male.

Active in Switzerland from 1915 toc.1922, active then naturalised in Israel from 1942.

Born 24 May 1895, in Bucharest, born Marcel Iancu; died 21 April 1984, in Tel Aviv.

Painter, sculptor, engraver, illustrator, architect.

Dadaism.

Zurich Dadaist, Artistes Radicaux, Das Neue Leben, New Horizons...

Article

Russian, 20th century, male.

Born 1890 , in Polschinock, in the Smolensk region; died 1941 , in Schodnia, near Moscow.

Architect, painter, sculptor, draughtsman, graphic designer, typographer, poster artist, illustrator, lithographer, photomontage artist, photographer, writer, collage artist. Stage sets.

Constructivism, Suprematism.

Obshchestvo Khudoznikov 4 Iskusstva (Four Arts Society), Vkhutemas...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 16 May 1872, in Münster; died 5 April 1943, in Baierbrunn (Upper Bavaria), in Munich according to other sources.

Architect, painter, draughtsman, illustrator, engraver, sculptor, interior designer, graphic designer. Portraits, landscapes with figures, landscapes, portraits. Stage sets, designs (furniture).

Jugendstil, Art Deco...

Article

Polish, 20th century, male.

Active from 1945 in France.

Born 14 June 1927, in Teschen.

Painter (including gouache), sculptor (bronze), engraver, lithographer, illustrator. Figures, scenes with figures, architectural views, flowers. Stage sets.

Spitzer is a Polish painter of Jewish origin, who was marked by World War II. He moved to Paris and studied at the École des Beaux-Arts. His work evokes the horrors of escape, exile and massacre. Deliberately Expressionist, he uses thick textures, a violent graphic style, and his painting often takes on tones of derisive farce. Spitzer is also an illustrator. His works include: ...

Article

Elizabeth Clegg

(b Tettenweis, Lower Bavaria, Feb 23, 1863; d Munich, Aug 30, 1928).

German draughtsman, illustrator, printmaker, decorative artist, painter, sculptor and architect. He was noted for his treatment of erotic and comic aspects of mythological themes. He drew eagerly as a child, soon becoming a gifted caricaturist. From 1878 to 1881 he attended the Kunstgewerbeschule in Munich, where he received particular encouragement from Ferdinand Barth (1842–92). From 1881 to 1885 he studied at the Munich Akademie, where he was taught by Wilhelm Lindenschmit (1829–95) and Ferdinand Löfftz (1845–1910). During his student years Stuck earned a living from designs for decorative painting, and he made notable contributions (1880–84) to the humorous Munich periodical Fliegende Blätter and to the Viennese serial publications Allegorien und Embleme and Karten und Vignetten. These did much to establish his reputation as both a skilled and a witty draughtsman.

Stuck claimed that his first attempt at painting in oils was the picture ...

Article

Spanish, 20th–21st century, male.

Born 13 December 1923, in Barcelona. Died 6 February 2012, in Barcelona.

Painter (including mixed media), collage artist, engraver, illustrator, sculptor, assemblage artist, ceramicist. Murals, architectural integration, designs for mosaics, stage sets.

Dau al Set (Seven-faced Die) Group.

After the long period, from the beginning of the Spanish Civil War to the end of World War II, during which manifestations of avant-garde art were practically forbidden in Spain, Antoni Tàpies became the first Spanish painter to achieve international reputation and give young Spanish artists the impetus that would allow them to take over from the generation of Pablo Picasso, Juan Gris, and Joan Miró. While a student, he had begun to show an interest in modern art and experimented with drawing and painting, although he had received no formal training. He began studying law in 1943 but continued to paint, abandoning law in 1946. In 1948, with a group of Barcelona writers and painters, he collaborated to the ...

Article

French, 20th – 21st century, female.

Born 1956, in Paris.

Painter, pastellist, engraver, draughtswoman, sculptor, illustrator. Stage sets, artists' books.

Mâkhi Xenakis is the daughter of Iannis Xenakis, the composer. After completing architectural studies, she turned to the design of stage scenery. When visiting New York in ...