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Article

(b Brussels, Aug 20, 1848; d Ixelles, Brussels, Dec 13, 1914).

Belgian architect, designer, painter and writer . He came from a family of artists: one brother, Charles Baes, was a glass painter and two others, Henri Baes and Pierre Baes, were decorative painters. Jean Baes studied decorative design at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, and, from 1867 to 1871, in the firm of Charle-Albert. He subsequently trained in architecture in the studios of Emile Janlet, Wynand Janssens and Alphonse Balat. Baes devoted most of his professional career—which was cut short in 1895 by a debilitating illness—to architecture but he also worked as an interior designer, a graphic designer, an architectural draughtsman and, especially, as a watercolourist of architectural subjects. In 1872 he was a founder-member of Belgium’s Société Centrale d’Architecture and after 1874 he collaborated on its journal, L’Emulation. In 1886 he became Assistant Director of the newly established Ecole des Arts Décoratifs, Brussels, where his pupils included Paul Hankar and ...

Article

Laura Mattioli Rossi

Italian family of artists, architects and collectors . Pietro Bagatti Valsecchi (b Milan, 15 April 1802; d Milan, 27 Nov 1864) was adopted by Baron Lattanzio Valsecchi and assumed the latter’s surname and inherited his estate. He gained a degree in mathematics and physics but later devoted himself to painting miniatures on ivory, enamel, glass, metal and porcelain, specializing in these techniques in Paris and Geneva. Returning to Milan, he soon gained considerable recognition for such work and took part in major exhibitions. In 1837 he presented a group of works at the Salon in Paris, including a miniature copy on ivory of Francesco Hayez’s Mary Queen of Scots Mounting the Scaffold (1827; Milan, Bagatti Valsecchi Col.) and a copy on porcelain of Francesco Podesti’s Raphael’s Studio (Milan, Bib. Ambrosiana). In 1842 he was made a noble of the Austrian Empire for his artistic achievements, and the Emperor Ferdinand acquired one of his paintings on porcelain, ...

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 14 April 1868, in Hamburg; died 27 February 1940, in Berlin.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver, architect, designer, decorative artist, graphic designer. Posters, furniture, wallpaper, carpets, glassware, ceramics, table services, jewellery, silverwork, objets d'art, typefaces.

Jugendstil, functional school.

Die Sieben (Group of Seven), Deutscher Werkbund...

Article

(b Courtrai [Flem. Kortrijk], April 25, 1821; d Marke, June 18, 1894).

Belgian architect, designer, mural and glass painter. Born into a prominent family, he was originally destined for a career in politics or administration but became known, in the words of W(illiam) H(enry) J(ames) Weale, as the ‘ Pugin of Belgium’ (Building News, xxxvi, 1879, p. 350). From 1837 to 1842 he read law at Leuven University and followed a basic training as an artist at the Academie voor Schone Kunsten in Courtrai and as a pupil of L. Verhaegen and Jules Victor Génisson (1805–60). Under the guidance of Paulus Lauters he became a skilful draughtsman of landscapes; he also took lessons with the sculptor C. H. Geerts (1807–55), who was an important pioneer of the Gothic Revival style. Through personal contacts with Charles Forbes René, Comte de Montalembert, and A. W. N. Pugin (see Pugin family, §2) and through his tours of England in ...

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 13 October 1836, in Paris; died 15 April 1902, in Paris.

Glass painter, draughtsman, architect.

Édouard Amédée Didron was the nephew and adopted son of Adolphe Napoléon Didron. He exhibited at the Salons of 1857 and 1859 and published numerous works on stained glass and related techniques....

Article

German, 19th century, male.

Born 12 February 1835, in Munich; died 22 May 1891, in Munich.

Architect, glass painter.

Dopfer created stained glass windows for the churches of Herheim, Esslingen, Mamberg, Wintherthur and others.

Article

German, 19th century, male.

Born 19th century, in Danzig (now Gdansk, Poland).

Glass painter.

Glinsky was trained by the architecture painter Joh.-Karl Schutz in Danzig, then by Brulow at the academy in St Petersburg. In 1843, he went to Berlin where he devoted himself to glass painting....

Article

(Ivanovich)

(b 1856; d 1914).

Russian architect based in St Petersburg. One of the first of his designs to be built was the church of the Virgin of Joy for All Sorrowing (Bogomater’ vsekh skorbyashchikh radosti) attached to the glass factory on Obukhovskaya Oborona Prospect (1894–8, destr. 1932; chapel survives), with Aleksandr Ivanov. This was a fantasy on the theme of 17th-century national religious architecture: a three-part structure (bell-tower, refectory, church), with the orthodox five domes and kokoshniki typical of the Moscow school of architecture. The church was an example of the ‘Russian style’ of the reign of Alexander III (reg 1881–94), leading to the Russo-Byzantine style of Konstantin Ton and Nikolay Yefimov. Gogen’s use of the ‘Russian style’ was highly original, as in the central market building in Nizhny Novgorod (end of the 1880s; with K. Treyman, A. Trambitsky and Nikolay Ivanov), with its fairytale decoration and use of kokoshniki, ogee arches and other elements from Old Russian architecture....

Article

Swiss, 19th century, male.

Born 13 June 1843, in Basel; died 1908, in Lausanne.

Glass painter, architect.

He did stained glass windows in Bern and Geneva Cathedral, among other places.

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 1806, in Mont-St-Sulpice (Yonne); died 1883, in Paris.

Painter. Historical subjects, battles, genre scenes, architectural interiors, landscapes. Designs for stained glass.

Prosper Lafaye was a pupil of Auguste Couder in Paris. He exhibited at the Salon de Paris under the names of Lafait and Lafay ...

Article

German, 19th century, male.

Born 1839, in Frankfurt am Main; died 1902, in Frankfurt am Main.

Glass painter, draughtsman, architect. Designs for stained glass.

Alexander Linnemann worked in Dresden and Frankfurt. He drew the cartoons for the windows of Frankfurt Cathedral and three glass panels for the Reichstag in Berlin....

Article

Swiss, 19th century, male.

Born 24 February 1858, in Zurich; died 1903.

Glass painter, decorative designer.

Johann Albert Lüthi devoted himself first to architecture, and then to decorative painting on glass. In October of 1901, he was appointed director of the arts school in Zurich, a position which he held until three months before he died. His works include the stair window at the Henneburg gallery in Zurich, several window panes in the church of St Michael in Zug, and the decoration of the Parliament Palace in Bern. He received a gold medal and the medal of the Grand Duke of Baden at the painted glass exhibition in Karlsruhe....

Article

Spanish, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 6 January 1873, in Barcelona; died 27 April 1940, in Vilanova i la Geltrú (Catalonia).

Painter, draughtsman (including charcoal), illustrator, decorative designer. Landscapes, seascapes, architectural views, urban views, harbour scenes. Wall decorations, designs for stained glass.

Joaquín Mir y Trinxet's father made him study with a view to a commercial career. He was a pupil at the Escuela de Bellas Artes in Barcelona. He was part of the art groups in Barcelona ...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1857, in Seurre (Côte d'Or); died 1951, in Brussels.

Painter, draughtsman, watercolourist, designer of ornamental architectural features, designer. Portraits, figures, interiors, genre scenes, landscapes. Designs for stained glass, furniture.

Symbolism, Art Nouveau.

Auguste Morisot was a pupil at the École des Beaux-Arts in Lyons. He was sent on a mission to Venezuela in ...

Article

John Kenworthy-Browne and Lin Barton

(b Milton Bryant, Beds, Aug 3, 1803; d Sydenham, Kent, June 9, 1865).

English horticulturalist, garden designer, and architect. He established his reputation as a gardener at Chatsworth House, Derbys, where he developed new construction techniques for glasshouses. This work inspired his acclaimed and influential ‘Crystal Palace’, which housed the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London (see fig.).

The youngest son of a farmer, Paxton lacked formal education and his professional training was in horticulture. He worked at Battlesden, Beds, and other country house gardens before employment in 1823 at the Horticultural Society’s new garden at Chiswick. While there he encountered the 6th Duke of Devonshire, who, impressed by his intelligence and bearing, asked him in May 1826 to be head gardener at Chatsworth, Derbys. Paxton rapidly brought the neglected garden to be possibly the most famous and influential in England. From 1831 he also edited and wrote in botanical magazines, becoming widely known and publishing many details of plants and improvements at Chatsworth (e.g. ...

Article

Gavin Townsend

(b Lichtenheim, Lower Bavaria, Dec 3, 1818; d Munich, Feb 10, 1901).

German chemist. Although best known for his research into the causes of cholera and typhoid, he was also involved in art and architecture. In 1845, a year after completing his doctorate in chemistry, he obtained a post at the Royal Mint of Bavaria. Here he discovered a way of reproducing porporino, an antique red glass much used by the ancient Romans and admired by Ludwig I of Bavaria. In 1849, when a professor of medical chemistry at the university in Munich, Pettenkofer developed, at the request of the architect Leo von Klenze, a process of manufacturing a building cement that was the equal of Portland cement. Pettenkofer’s greatest contribution to art, however, lay in the restoration of paintings. In 1863 he was asked to find a way of reversing the growth of mildew on the varnishes of oil paintings in the various galleries of Munich. Through experimentation and microscopic analysis, he discovered that the varnishes could be cleared through the application of hot alcohol vapour. In this endeavour Pettenkofer introduced the use of the ...

Article

Belgian, 19th century, male.

Born 6 September 1810, in Mechelen; died 28 June 1873, in Mechelen.

Glass painter, sculptor, architect.

Jean François Pluys was a professor in Mechelen in 1829. He made stained glass windows for churches throughout Belgium.

Article

Jean A. Follett

(b Boston, MA, 1842; d Boston, MA, 1910).

American architect, stained-glass designer, furniture designer, and photographer. Preston was the son of Jonathan Preston (1801–88), a successful builder in Boston. William completed a year’s study at the Lawrence Scientific School in Cambridge, MA (later incorporated into Harvard University), and then went to Paris where he enrolled briefly in the Atelier Douillard. He returned to Boston in 1861 to work with his father, with whom he remained in partnership until the latter’s death. William then practised independently until his own death.

Preston was a prolific architect, designing over 740 buildings in the course of a career spanning 50 years. His early work was in the French Renaissance style, as seen in his Boston Society of Natural History building (1861–4), a tripartite structure with its floor levels arranged to equate with the proportions of the base, shaft, and capital of a Classical column. It has monumental Corinthian columns and pilasters and a central pediment flanked by a balustraded parapet. He worked in a typically eclectic manner during the 1870s and became an extremely fine designer in the Queen Anne Revival style in the 1880s and early 1890s. The varied massing, stained-glass windows, terracotta, moulded brick, and carved-wood detail of the John D. Sturtevant House (...

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 20 June 1868, in Munich; died 15 April 1957, in Munich.

Painter, sculptor, decorative designer, designer, architect, interior designer. Genre scenes. Furniture, fabrics, ceramic, glassware, carpets, toys.

Richard Riemerschmid trained in painting at the Kunstakademie of Munich from 1888...

Article

Austrian, 19th century, male.

Died 25 March 1900, in Innsbruck.

Painter, glassmaker, architect, illustrator. Interiors.