1-20 of 32 results  for:

  • Architecture and Urban Planning x
  • Collecting, Patronage, and Display of Art x
  • Eighteenth-Century Art x
Clear all

Article

Howard Colvin

(b Westminster, London, Jan 1647 or 1648; d Oxford, Dec 14, 1710).

English architect and scholar. The son of Henry Aldrich, later auditor to James, Duke of York, he was educated at Westminster School, London, and at Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated as a BA in 1666 and an MA in 1669. He remained in Oxford for the rest of his life, becoming in 1682 a canon of Christ Church and in 1689 Dean of the College and Cathedral. From 1692 to 1695 he served as Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University.

Aldrich was a highly accomplished man who was well known for his learning in many fields. He edited Greek and Latin texts, wrote a standard book on logic, and also published works on mathematics, music and architecture. He had a large library that included books on antiquities and many architectural and other engravings. He left his library to Christ Church, where it remains, but directed that all his personal papers were to be destroyed. As a result, relatively little is known about his architectural interests and activities. However, there is reason to think that he had visited France and Italy, and he was certainly regarded by contemporaries as an authority on architectural matters. He was himself an excellent draughtsman and made the drawings for the allegorical engravings that decorate the Oxford almanacks for ...

Article

David Blayney Brown

(Howland)

(b Great Dunmow, Essex, Nov 6, 1753; d Coleorton, Leics, Feb 7, 1827).

Amateur painter and draughtsman, collector and patron. He was the quintessential amateur, whose interests extended to literature and drama as well as to art; he became the leading arbiter of taste of his day. The painter Thomas Hearne described him as the ‘supreme dictator on works of art’. While Beaumont strongly supported new trends in poetry and did much to foster the careers of William Wordsworth and Samuel Coleridge, he maintained essentially 18th-century standards in his connoisseurship. His love of art had begun at Eton College, where he was taught drawing by Alexander Cozens; it was confirmed in 1771 by a meeting with the engraver William Woollett and Hearne, then Woollett’s pupil. Subsequently Beaumont was guided by a succession of distinguished artists including John Robert Cozens, Joshua Reynolds, Thomas Gainsborough, Richard Wilson, Thomas Jones, Joseph Farington, Benjamin West, Thomas Girtin and John Constable. His own work, of which there is a large collection in the ...

Article

Anne Thackray

(b Bourges; d Paris, 1715).

French collector, patron and amateur draughtsman. A member of the Bourges family that included the great Jesuit preacher Father Louis de Bourdaloue, Claude de Bourdaloue built up a collection in Paris (mostly untraced), which Germain Brice, who gives no specific details, knew to include a hoard of paintings and drawings by famous masters, a large collection of rare prints and a considerable number of antique engraved gems. Bourdaloue also owned Rubens’s manuscript Pocketbook on art, which he had purchased from Roger de Piles; after his death it was acquired by André-Charles Boulle, but was badly damaged in a fire in 1720 in Boulle’s studio in the Louvre, Paris (fragments and partial transcripts survive). De Piles recorded that the Pocketbook included Rubens’s observations on optics, chiaroscuro, proportion, anatomy and architecture as well as extracts from poetry concerning human passions, with illustrations copied from ‘the best masters’, principally Raphael. Bourdaloue is known to have commissioned drawings (untraced) from ...

Article

(b Macerata, 1669; d Macerata, 1743).

Italian patron. A member of a noble Marchigian family, he embarked in the early 18th century on an ambitious programme of art patronage. In 1701 he commissioned the Roman architect Giovanni Battista Contini to rebuild the family palace in Macerata (now the Accademia, Via Don Minzoni); once the building was completed, he devoted particular attention to the decoration of the new long gallery, the theme of which was the story of Aeneas. In 1707 the Bolognese fresco painters Carlo Antonio Rambaldi (1680–1717) and Antonio Dardani (1677–1735) painted the Apotheosis of Aeneas on the gallery ceiling. The story was then developed in a series of 12 canvases commissioned between 1708 and 1717 from artists in the principal Italian art centres. They included the Bolognese artists Marcantonio Franceschini and Giovanni Gioseffo dal Sole, the Venetian Gregorio Lazzarini, Antonio Balestra of Verona and the Neapolitan Francesco Solimena, whose Dido and Aeneas...

Article

Malcolm Airs and Charles Saumarez Smith

English family of statesmen, patrons, and collectors. As successive principal ministers of state during the reigns of Elizabeth I and James I, both (1) William Cecil and his second son, (2) Robert Cecil, were arbiters of architectural taste: Burghley House, Cambs (built for the former in the early 1560s), and Hatfield House, Herts (for the latter; begun 1607), are leading examples of Elizabethan and Jacobean country-house architecture respectively. Wimbledon House, London (begun 1588, destr. 1732), was built for William’s elder son, Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter (1542–1623). (3) John Cecil, a fifth-generation direct descendant of William, is considered to have been one of the most important late 17th-century connoisseurs of Italian art. He made substantial improvements to Burghley House in the 1680s and 1690s, and his collection of paintings, sculptures and decorative art survives intact in the original furnished setting. Between 1755 and 1782 ‘Capability’ Brown carried out further alterations to the house and landscaped the park for ...

Article

Howard Colvin

(b May 7, 1661; d Oxford, Oct 22, 1736).

English politician, architect and virtuoso. He was the son of Sir William Clarke, Secretary at War to Charles II. He was educated at Brasenose College, Oxford, graduating as MA in 1683, Bachelor of Civil Law in 1686 and Doctor of Civil Law in 1708. In 1680 he was elected to a Fellowship at All Souls College, which he retained for the rest of his life. He entered politics in 1685 as Tory MP for the University of Oxford and subsequently represented the university from 1717 until his death. He held various offices under the Tory government, including those of Judge Advocate-General (1682–1705), Secretary at War (1692–1704) and joint Secretary to the Admiralty (1702–5). He was a Lord of the Admiralty from 1710 to 1714, when (on the death of Queen Anne) he relinquished office and devoted himself to academic life. He was buried in All Souls Chapel, where a monument commemorates his ‘taste in architecture, poetry and painting’....

Article

Iain Gordon Brown and Duncan Macmillan

Scottish family of patrons, collectors, and amateur draughtsmen and architects. For 200 years, through five generations, they had a vital influence on the development of taste and patronage in Scotland. The family’s wealth and its artistic inclinations were founded in the early 17th century by (1) John Clerk (i), a merchant and art dealer who bought the Penicuik estate in 1646. His son Sir John Clerk (1649–1722) was created 1st Baronet of Penicuik in 1679. The 1st Baronet’s son (2) Sir John Clerk, 2nd Baronet of Penicuik, was a lawyer, keen antiquary, amateur architect and writer as well as patron and collector; he was responsible for building Mavisbank House, Lothian, in the 1720s. The 2nd Baronet’s eldest son (3) Sir James Clerk, 3rd Baronet of Penicuik, rebuilt Penicuik House and commissioned Alexander Runciman to decorate its interiors, including Ossian’s Hall. Sir James Clerk’s younger brother was (4) John Clerk (ii) of Eldin, a talented amateur etcher and draughtsman, whose son ...

Article

Marta Galicki

(b Stockholm, April 25, 1709; d Stockholm, Nov 9, 1777).

Swedish architect, administrator, designer and collector. Considered the most technically orientated of 18th-century Swedish architects, he studied mechanics under the engineer Christoffer Polhem (1661–1751) and architecture and drawing with Carl Hårleman and continued his studies in Paris and Rome, while recruiting artisans for work on the Royal Palace, Stockholm. He became Hårleman’s assistant during the construction of the palace and succeeded him as Superintendent of Works (1753–68). He used the Baroque style in his refurbishment of the interior of the church of St Mary, Stockholm (1760). He was also responsible for the Rococo interiors of the royal palaces of Drottningholm and Stockholm and designed several country houses, such as Svenneby in Östergötland and Myrö in Närke (both 1770). As an urban planner he is best known for his designs for bridges. He also invented (1767) a type of tiled stove that remained a typical feature of Swedish interiors (...

Article

(b Alloa, Central, Feb 1675; d Aix-la-Chapelle, May 1732).

Scottish patron and amateur architect. He inherited the title of Earl of Mar in 1689, having completed his education and a Grand Tour. Although a Catholic, Mar’s political sympathies wavered between loyalty to George I and support for the King’s Jacobite enemies. Despite the fact that he inherited immense debts, Mar became the first patron of the architect James Gibbs and commissioned from him Comley Bank Lodge (unexecuted) for his estate at Alloa (c. 1710; design in Oxford, Worcester Coll. Lib.), as well as other alterations and improvements. Mar and Hugh Campbell, 3rd Earl of Loudoun (d 1731), became Secretaries of State for Scotland, and again Gibbs was employed to divide a house in London at Privy Gardens, Whitehall, to make a home for each of them (1715; destr.). As Gibbs’s first British patron, Mar played an important part in his early success and in 1713...

Article

José Fernandes Pereira

[Aires de Sá e Meneses, Rodrigo]

(b Lisbon, 1676; d Lisbon, 1733). Portuguese diplomat and patron. He was at the court of Peter II of Portugal and was known as a connoisseur of painting, sculpture and, in particular, of architecture. He used his knowledge of geometry and mathematics to make designs for forts with regular ground-plans, although none of these plans or projects has survived. During the reign of John V he held the post of artistic adviser to the King, who sent him on an embassy to Rome, where he remained from 1712 to 1718, and where he carried out political and cultural commissions for the court. He was successful in his mission to persuade Clement XI to elevate the Royal Chapel (destr. 1755), Paço da Ribeira, Lisbon, to the status of a Patriarchal church in 1716. In that year the Marquês de Fontes was received in audience by the Pope and made a state entry into Rome, famous at the time for its magnificence. This is reflected in the carved allegories, alluding to Portuguese history and discoveries, on the magnificent Italian state coaches used in the entry (Belém, Mus. N. Coches)....

Article

Andrew W. Moore

(b Salle, Norfolk, 1676; d Narford, Norfolk, Sept 4, 1753).

English collector and architect. He was the eldest son of Andrew Fountaine and Sarah Chicheley. In 1696 he was introduced to the court of William III and was knighted in 1698. In 1701 he accompanied Lord Macclesfield to carry the Act of Succession to the Elector of Hannover, whose gift of a silver-gilt salver remains in the family collection (priv. col., see 1985 exh. cat., p. 107). Fountaine then undertook the Grand Tour. He was initially interested in coins and medals, but among the few works of art acquired on this tour was his own youthful portrait in red chalk by Carlo Maratti (priv. col., see 1985 exh. cat., p. 93).

Fountaine had returned to London by the end of 1703. On his father’s death in 1706, he inherited the estate and newly built hall at Narford, Norfolk, although he did not reside there until 1732–3. He embarked on a second Grand Tour of France and Italy, beginning in Paris in ...

Article

Molly Dorkin

Place where works of art are displayed. In a commercial gallery, works of art are displayed for the purposes of sale (for information on non-commercial art galleries see Display of art and Museum, §I). Historically, artworks were commissioned by patrons directly from an artist and produced in his workshop. In the Netherlands, the economic boom following the conclusion of the Eighty Years’ War with Spain (1648) led to rising demand for art. Patrons began buying from dealers, some of whom produced illustrated catalogues. Antwerp became the centre of the art world. Galleries for the display and viewing of art appeared in paintings by Teniers family, §2 and Bruegel family, §3, although these were private not commercial spaces, or imaginary constructions.

The Paris Salon, which had been organized by the Académie Royale de Peinture et Sculpture since 1667, was opened to the public for the first time in ...

Article

Kim Sloan

[de Grey]

English family of architects, patrons and collectors. Principally noted for their interest in garden design and architecture as represented in the family estate at Wrest Park, Beds, many generations of the family were active as statesmen and parliamentarians. Among the important works of art once owned by the family are Claude Lorrain’s Coast View of the Embarkation of Carlo and Ubaldo (Toronto, A. G. Ont.) and Anthony van Dyck’s portrait of the Balbi Children (London, N.G.). In 1676 Anthony, 11th Earl Grey (b 1645; d 19 Aug 1702), designed and built a new north front for the Elizabethan house at Wrest; during the late 1680s he began making Baroque formal gardens to the south of it. His son, Henry Grey, 12th Earl of Kent (b 1671; d 5 June 1740), whose Grand Tour in 1690–91 had included a visit to Rome, inherited the estate on his father’s death and resumed work on the gardens in ...

Article

Charles Saumarez Smith

In 

Article

Iain Gordon Brown

In 

Article

Article

Iain Gordon Brown

In 

Article

Stéphane Loire

(b ?1655; d ?1712).

French writer. Little is known about his life; he described himself as a painter and sculptor, but none of his works has survived. He is now remembered only as the author of the Cabinet des singularitez d’architecture, peinture, sculpture et graveure (Paris, 1699–1700). This work, which was dedicated to Jules Hardouin Mansart, the Surintendant des Bâtiments du Roi, relies heavily on the publications of André Félibien and Roger de Piles, and on the works of various Classical and foreign authors. It was intended to be a complete history of art, combining history, biographical detail and information on technique. The most original sections of Le Comte’s work are his catalogues of the works of the engravers Jean Marot, Robert Nanteuil, Claude Mellan, Antonio Tempesta, Jacques Callot and Stefano della Bella; it was, in fact, the earliest published manual for the print-collector. Also valuable is the information on artistic creativity and art collections in Paris at the end of the 17th century, such as the description of the Mays of Notre-Dame, and the Salon of ...

Article

Michael McCarthy

(b Arbury, Warwicks, May 30, 1719; d Arbury, Nov 25, 1806).

English politician, architect, draughtsman, patron and collector. In 1734 he succeeded his brother as fifth baronet. He was educated at Westminster School and University College, Oxford, and set out on a Grand Tour after graduating in 1739. He made an intensive study of Imperial Roman remains in France and Italy. His record of ruins in Provence is the most complete and exact of the 18th century. In Italy he made the fullest visual record of the disposition of works of art in the Uffizi and other collections and of the remains of Roman tombs along the Appian Way (drawings, Warwick Co. Rec. Office; priv. col.). Newdigate’s style is remarkably close to that of Piranesi, although they did not meet until 1775, during Newdigate’s second Grand Tour, when Newdigate purchased from him the two candelabra that he subsequently presented to Oxford University, along with 12 bound volumes of Piranesi’s prints (all Oxford, Ashmolean). In the same year ...

Article

Roberta J. M. Olson

(b Bologna, 15 May ?1775–7; d Turin, March 6, 1860).

Italian painter, architect, designer and collector. At the age of 12 he began to frequent the house in Bologna of his patron Conte Carlo Filippo Aldrovandi Marescotti (1763–1823), whose collections and library provided his early artistic education and engendered his taste for collecting. From 1795 he worked on several decorative schemes with the theatre designer and decorator Antonio Basoli (1774–1848), and it was perhaps in theatre designs that Palagi was first exposed to an eclectic range of motifs from exotic cultures. He was influenced by the linear, mannered style of Felice Giani, with whom he frequented the important evening drawing sessions at the house of the engraver Francesco Rosaspina (1762–1841). Beginning in 1802, he participated in the informal Accademia della Pace, Bologna, as well as studying at the Accademia Clementina, and was elected to the Accademia Nazionale di Belle Arti of Bologna in 1803...