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Article

Argentinian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 16 September 1856, in Buenos Aires; died 16 September 1933, in Buenos Aires.

Engraver.

Emilio Carnelio Agrelo was self-taught and produced a large number of etchings. He introduced etching to Argentina in the last decade of the 19th century, before which the technique had been unknown. Emilio Agrela was obliged to pass his commissions on to artists in Paris. There is a room named after him at the national museum in Buenos Aires....

Article

Monica E. Kupfer

(b Santiago de Veraguas, March 25, 1869; d Panama City, Nov 12, 1952).

Panamanian painter, draughtsman and printmaker. He is known chiefly as the designer of the national flag (1903) of Panama. He studied business administration and had a long career in public office. When Panama became independent in 1903, he became Secretario de Hacienda and in 1904 Consul-General ad-honorem to Hamburg. In 1908 he moved to New York, where he studied with Robert Henri, who strongly influenced his style of vigorous drawing, loose brushwork, distorted expressionist images and sombre colours, as in Head Study (1910; Panama City, R. Miró priv. col.; see Miró). He produced most of his work between 1910 and 1914 and again after the late 1930s; his main subject was the human figure, but he also painted portraits, landscapes and still-lifes. On his return to Panama in the 1930s he worked as an auditor in the Contraloría General. After his retirement he resumed painting and produced some of his most passionate works, such as ...

Article

Atl, Dr  

Xavier Moyssén

[Murillo, Gerardo ]

(b Guadalajara, Oct 3, 1875; d Mexico City, Aug 14, 1964).

Mexican painter, printmaker, writer, theorist, vulcanologist and politician. Better known by his pseudonym, which signifies ‘Doctor Water’ in Náhuatl and which he adopted in 1902, Murillo first studied art in Guadalajara and from 1890 to 1896 at the Academia de San Carlos in Mexico City, where his vocation became clear. In 1899 he travelled to Europe and settled in Rome, where the work of Michelangelo had a profound impact on him. He travelled to other countries to study and to learn about avant-garde painting. He went back to Mexico in 1904 and seven years later returned to Europe, only to rush back when the Revolution broke out in Mexico. He joined the revolutionary movement, taking an active role in its various activities, including the muralist movement, through which he was associated with Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco and David Alfaro Siqueiros. Although he practised portrait painting, his passion was for landscape in a variety of techniques and materials, some of them invented by him; for example, he used ‘atlcolours’, which were simply crayons made of wax, resins and pigment with which he could obtain textures not obtainable with oil paint. His favoured supports were rigid surfaces such as wood or hardboard....

Article

Argentinian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1858, in Turin; died 1921, in Buenos Aires.

Engraver.

It is to Bosco that the first colour etching produced in Argentina is attributed, Coachman Sleeping on His Seat. He also created the original design for Argentinian notes and coins before ...

Article

Argentinian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1865, in Buenos Aires.

Engraver, lithographer, illustrator.

The work of Carlos Clerice was featured at the Engraving in Argentina exhibition in Rosario in 1942. As early as 1879, he illustrated the first edition of Martín Fierro (), the story of a gaucho by the Argentinian writer José Hernadez. He helped to illustrate various magazines and completed numerous lithographs....

Article

Eloísa Uribe

(b Mexico City, 1833; d Mexico City, 1908).

Mexican illustrator and lithographer. He studied at the Escuela Militar de Ingenieros, Mexico City. When the school was reorganized following the American invasion of 1847, he was commissioned to execute portraits of the Child Heroes. During the French intervention he founded a number of political newspapers, including El espectro, El perico and Palo de ciego, for which he executed caricatures and lithographs. Persecution forced him into hiding, but he re-emerged in 1865 as interpreter and chief draughtsman to the Comisión Científica del Imperio. Following the death in 1868 of Constantino Escalante, Hernández became the caricaturist for the periodical La orquesta; he also produced lithographs for El artista (e.g. The Rattle; see Fernández, fig.). He collaborated with Hesiquio Iriarte on, among other things, illustrations for El libro rojo (1870), a novel by Vicente Riva Palacio, director of La orquesta. At the time of his death Hernández was producing caricatures for ...

Article

Mexican, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active fromc.1910 active in the USA.

Born 7 February 1874, in Guadalajara; died 1943 or 1934.

Painter, engraver. Landscapes, flowers.

Xavier Martinez y Orozco studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris under the direction of Gérome and Carrière. He lived and worked in Piémont, California. He received a commendation at the Paris Exposition Universelle of ...

Article

Ann Harlow and Sally Mills

[Javier Timoteo Martinez y Orozco]

(b Guadalajara, Mexico, Feb 7, 1869; d Carmel, CA, Jan 13, 1943).

American painter and printmaker of Mexican birth. At a young age he began sketching and painting in watercolor and attended art classes at the Liceo de Varones in his native Guadalajara; later he studied Pre-Columbian excavations and designs, taking special interest in his own Tarascan Indian heritage. His mother died in 1886, and he was taken under the wing of (and possibly adopted by) the socially prominent Rosalia La Bastida de Coney. After her husband, Alexander K. Coney, became Mexican Consul-General in San Francisco in 1892, Martinez joined them and in 1893 enrolled at the Mark Hopkins Institute of Art, where he studied under Arthur F. Mathews. Although he was handicapped at first by his limited English, he was a gifted and favored pupil, who by the time he graduated in 1897 had won the school’s highest honors and been appointed assistant to Mathews, by then the school’s director.

Martinez traveled to Paris in the autumn of ...

Article

Alexandra Kennedy

(b Quito, Aug 18, 1842; d Quito, June 24, 1906).

Ecuadorean painter, illustrator, draughtsman, engraver, and teacher. He attended the first Escuela de Bellas Artes in Quito (1872–5) and was one of the most prolific and versatile Romantic artists in 19th-century Ecuador, working in several genres. His portraits of important figures included that of the historian Federico González Suárez (1883; Quito, Mus. A. Mod.). He illustrated González Suárez’s archaeological work Estudio histórico sobre los Cañaris (Quito, 1878), among others, and contributed illustrations of snails and molluscs for the French naturalist Auguste Cousin’s Faune malacologique de la République de l’Equateur (c. 1893–7; Quito, Archv Nat. Hist. Banco Cent. del Ecuador). In connection with the nationalist movement, Pinto tirelessly explored costumbrista and indigenist themes in dozens of drawings, watercolours, and engravings, many of them inspired by Cantares del pueblo ecuatoriano (1892) by the Romantic poet Juan León Mera. He painted such landscapes as El Chimborazo...

Article

Mexican, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1852, in Aguascalientes; died 20 January 1913, in Mexico.

Engraver, lithographer, draughtsman, illustrator.

José Posada was a teacher in Leon, Guanajuato, in 1873. He gave up teaching in 1878, moving to Mexico City to work as an engraver, though it is not known where he acquired his training. In the beginning, he worked for a publisher, illustrating almanacs, liturgies, legends, tales, prayers and even the texts of announcements, engraving on zinc, lead and steel. He espoused progressive ideas, and drew caricatures and satirical drawings for the opposition press. His work was devoted to chronicling Mexican life of the time, and the difficulties of people under the control of large property-owners. The compilation ...

Article

Elisa García Barragán

(b Aguascalientes, Feb 2, 1851; d Mexico City, Jan 20, 1913).

Mexican printmaker and draughtsman. He showed an aptitude for drawing as a child and briefly attended the Academia de Aguascalientes, where he was taught by Antonio Varela. Afterwards he studied lithography in the workshop of José Trinidad Pedroza and began to attract attention with his critical illustrations for Pedroza’s periodical El Jicote. Local political hostility forced both men to move, however, and in 1872 they went to León, Guanajuato, where Posada began wood-engraving. In 1884 he taught lithography at a local secondary school. Following the severe floods of 1888 he moved to Mexico City, where the following year he began to work as a draughtsman at Antonio Vanegas Arroyo’s printing house and started to move away from lithography towards cheaper printmaking on zinc, wood, and type metal.

Posada and Vanegas propagated news items on printed flyers, illustrated by Posada as corridos gráficos in order to communicate with a largely illiterate public. Posada also illustrated sensational stories in Vanegas’s regular ...

Article

Leonor Morales

(b Zacatecas, June 21, 1870; d Paris, Sept 16, 1907).

Mexican painter, draughtsman and printmaker. He lived in Mexico City from 1876, later attending the Colegio Militar and the Escuela de Bellas Artes there before leaving for Karlsruhe, Germany, around 1892. There he came into contact with Romanticism and Jugendstil, both of which had a great influence on his drawings and prints, the most important part of his work. He studied under the academic painter Meyerbeer and seems to have been particularly attracted by the work of Arnold Böcklin.

Ruelas returned in 1895 to Mexico, where he met a group of intellectuals who three years later founded the Revista Moderna, including the writers Jesús E. Valenzuela, José Juan Tablada, Jesús Urueta and Juan Sánchez Azcona, and the painters Germán Gedovius, Roberto Montenegro and Leandro Izaguirre. Ruelas collaborated on several issues of the magazine, the voice of the Latin American modernist movement, from 1899, with reproductions of drawings, vignettes and occasionally of his oil paintings, such as ...

Article

Mexican, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born in Mexico.

Engraver (burin).

Valadez participated in the Salon de Paris and received honourable mention in 1907.

Article

Mexican, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 6 July 1840, in Tematzalcingo; died 25 August 1912.

Painter, watercolourist, engraver, draughtsman, illustrator, lithographer. History painting, landscapes.

A pupil of Eugenio Landesio at the Academia de San Carlos in Mexico, Velasco spent several years studying landscape painting before becoming a teacher of perspective at the academy from 1868. Attracted to photography for a while, he quickly turned to lithography and published an album devoted to the flora of parts of Mexico in 1870. From 1874 he lived very close to the valley in Mexico from which he was to draw his best inspiration. One of his paintings illustrating this subject was awarded the Philadelphia Centenary Prize in 1876. Velasco, however, refusing to lock himself into a single subject, was to change course and move towards the representation of archaeological sites and history painting. It was in this spirit that as head of the Mexican delegation, he showed 78 paintings at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1889. This period in France, followed by various stays in Germany, Italy and Spain, ended in homesickness. This took Velasco back to Mexico, where he returned to teaching at the Academia de San Carlos and remained there. He engraved illustrations for botanical books. An objective painter of the Mexican landscape, of its flora and fauna, he demonstrated his faith in modernity....

Article

Aída Sierra Torres

(b Veracruz, 1848; d Tacubaya, Mexico City, Feb 14, 1904).

Mexican illustrator and lithographer. He began his career in 1869, making prints for the weekly La ilustración potosina in San Luis Potosí. He collaborated with Alejandro Casarín and Jesús Alamilla on illustrations using engravings coloured with pen for the novel Ensalada de pollos by José Tomás de Cuéllar. In these the use of a schematic design accentuated the appearance of the figures portrayed. He created caricatures (1872–3) for La orquesta and other periodicals, but he established his reputation with caricatures (1874–6) of government figures for the weekly Hijo Ahuizote. Villasana was a member of the political party of President Porfirio Díaz and in 1880 published ferocious caricatures of Díaz’s opponents in El coyote emplumado. He was co-publisher in 1883, with Ireneo Paz, of La patria ilustrada and in 1888 he founded his own weekly, México y sus costumbres; in both periodicals he published his own caricatures of public figures. In ...