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Article

Jorge Luján-Muñoz

(b Guatemala City, Sept 16, 1781; d Guatemala City, Nov 21, 1845).

Guatemalan painter, printmaker, and medallist. He entered the mint in 1795 as an apprentice engraver but on the recommendation of its director, Pedro Garci-Aguirre, also became Master Corrector at the Escuela de Dibujo de la Sociedad Económica de Amigos del País, Guatemala City, in 1796, holding the post until 1804. He continued working at the mint until 1809 and demonstrated outstanding skill both as a medallist and engraver of coins and as an engraver and etcher. He returned to the mint in 1823 as second engraver, remaining in the post until his death.

Despite the quality of his work as a printmaker and medallist, Cabrera gained artistic recognition especially as a miniature painter, working mostly in watercolour on ivory in a meticulous technique. He produced some miniatures on religious themes and others of birds, but the majority, measuring no more than 50 mm in height or width, were portraits of members of the Guatemalan aristocracy and bourgeoisie. It is not known exactly how many he produced, but from the middle of the 1830s he began to number them, starting from 500; the highest known number of the approximately 200 authenticated miniatures is 745. Although he suffered some illness, he was most productive during the last five years of his life. An evolution can be discerned from his earliest works, dating from ...

Article

Argentinian, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born at the end of the 18th century, in Buenos Aires; died 1878, in Buenos Aires.

Painter, lithographer. Figure compositions.

Camana was the founder of the Society for the Development of Art in Argentina in 1876, and also taught design to Doña Mamelita Rosas, wife of the famous general. He created the picture: ...

Article

Blanca García Vega

(fl Madrid, 1793–1828).

Spanish engraver. He trained at the Real Academia de S Fernando, Madrid, where he was a pupil of Manuel Salvador Carmona. In 1795, under Salvador Carmona’s direction, he copied Gerard Edelinck’s print of the Holy Family, a painting (Venice, Pin. Manfrediniana) formerly attributed to Leonardo. Fernández Noseret engraved St Cecilia (Madrid, Pal. Real) by Guido Reni, after the drawing by León Bueno (1793); St Joseph and St Lawrence after the paintings by Alonso Cano; and 13 plates after drawings by Antonio Carnicero for Colección de las principales suertes de una corrida de toros (Madrid, 1795). He collaborated on Brigada de artillería volante (Madrid, 1796) and in 1828 copied two 18th-century prints: St Barnabas by Francisco Muntaner Moner and St Ferdinand (Madrid, Prado) by Murillo, the latter after the engraving by Salvador Carmona.

E. Paez Rios: Repertorio de grabados españoles de la Biblioteca Nacional, 1 (Madrid, 1981), p. 344...

Article

Jorge Luján-Muñoz

(b Cádiz, ?1750; d Guatemala City, Sept 15, 1809).

Spanish engraver and architect, active in Guatemala. He studied in Cádiz around 1760, and in 1773 he moved to Madrid, where he was probably taught by the noted engraver Tomás Francisco Prieto (1726–82). In 1778 he was appointed assistant engraver of the Real Casa de Moneda in Guatemala, where he arrived the next year. Following the death of the principal engraver, he was confirmed in this post in 1783 and held it until his death. Besides his work as engraver of coin dies and medal stamps, Garci-Aguirre made numerous fine copperplate engravings for books (e.g. P. Ximena: Reales Exequias por el Señor Don Carlos III, Guatemala City, 1790) and other publications. In Guatemala he revived the art of engraving, working in the Neo-classical style, which he was one of the first to introduce to the country. He soon became involved with architectural works in connection with the building of the new capital of Guatemala City, first in the Real Casa de Moneda and then on other royal projects. From ...

Article

Mónica Martí Cotarelo

(María)

(b Puebla, 1789; d Puebla, 1860).

Mexican architect, sculptor, painter, lithographer, and teacher. He was the leading figure in Puebla in the fields of architecture, sculpture, painting, and drawing during the early 19th century. He was director of the Academia de Dibujo in Puebla from its foundation in 1814 and the first recipient of a scholarship from the academy, which allowed him to go to Paris (1824–1827), where he studied architecture, drawing, and lithography. He also visited museums, factories, and prisons, intending to introduce French developments and systems into Puebla. On his return to Mexico he devoted himself to intense public activity, architectural reform, painting, lithography, and teaching, and experiments in industrialized production. Among his most important sculptural works is the completion (1819) of the ciprés (altarpiece with baldacchino) for Puebla Cathedral, which had been left unfinished on the death of Manuel Tolsá. It combines a high altar, a sepulchral monument, and a sanctuary of the Virgin, and it is one of the most spectacular examples of Mexican neoclassicism. From ...

Article

[Eduardo ]

(b Saint-Quentin, Aisne, Dec 30, 1788; d Saint-Quentin, 1875).

French painter and lithographer, active in Mexico. He studied under David and Jean-Baptiste Regnault and established his reputation in Paris as a painter of portraits, genre scenes, and historical subjects. From 1850 to 1855 he lived and worked in Mexico City, exhibiting annually at the Academia de Bellas Artes. Although he produced outstanding portraits, for example of General Mariano Arista (1851; Mexico City, Mus. N. Hist.), his most important works in Mexico were costumbrista genre scenes, of which he produced a considerable number. He presented his figures, which he painted in a Neoclassical style, as representative of different social types in suitable settings, helping to establish the terms for such subject matter evolved by Agustín Arrieta and other 19th-century Mexican artists.

Obregón, G. Tipos y paisajes mexicanos del siglo XIX. Mexico City, 1976: 6–9.Ortíz Macedo, Luis. Edouard Pingret: Un pintor romántico francés que retrató el Mexico del mediar del siglo XIX...

Article

Ramón Gutiérrez

(b Celaya, Oct 13, 1759; d Celaya, Aug 3, 1833).

Mexican architect, painter, engraver, and sculptor. He studied painting under Miguel Cabrera at the Real Academia de las Nobles Artes de S Carlos in Mexico City but did not graduate. He subsequently took up wood-carving and engraving. He learnt the elements of architecture from the Jesuits, who gave him a copy of the writings of Jacopo Vignola. His architecture exhibits a familiarity with the classic treatises, although he never visited Europe. Tresguerras’s first major work (1780s) was the reconstruction in Neo-classical style of the convent church of S Rosa, Querétaro, originally consecrated in 1752. The dome over the crossing is set on a drum articulated by rusticated columns, which flank a series of round-headed openings. He is also credited with remodelling the interior of the convent church of S Clara, Querétaro, and with constructing the Neptune Fountain (1802–7) in the plaza in front of it. The god stands under a triumphal arch, while water pours through the mouth of a fish at his feet. Tresguerras also completed (...

Article

[Jean Frédéric Waldeck, Comte de ]

(b Prague, March 17, 1766; d Paris, April 30, 1875).

French painter and printmaker of German–Bohemian origin, active in Mexico. After studying in Paris under Jacques-Louis David, Pierre-Paul Prud’hon and Joseph-Marie Vien he travelled to Chile and then to Mexico, where he was employed by an English mining company in Tlalpujahua to draw machinery to be used in extracting minerals. He became more interested, however, in drawing archaeological ruins. While in Mexico he declined the offer of two posts: that of directing the first lithographic press in 1826, shortly before its installation by the government, and the presidency of the Academia de S Carlos in Mexico City. He did, however, publish Colección de antigüedades que existen en el Museo Nacional.

Waldeck continued to publish his illustrations after returning to Europe, where he settled in Paris. In 1866 he was involved in a polemic in the newspapers with Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc over the merits of using photography as archaeological evidence.

Colección de antiqüedades que existen en el Museo Nacional...

Article

American, 18th – 19th century, male.

Active in New York, Chile, Peru, Bolivia, and Panama.

Born in Bloomfield (New Jersey).

Painter, engraver, photographer. Landscapes, portraits.

Charles V. Ward was the son of Caleb Ward and the brother of Jacob Caleb Ward. At the end of the 1820s he lived in Bloomfield and New York. Ward established himself as a landscape painter in New York around ...