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Article

Luis Enrique Tord

(fl mid-19th century).

?French draughtsman and lithographer active in the USA and Peru. He lived briefly in the USA, where in 1852 he published a book containing 32 woodcuts depicting American working-class figures. Later he moved to Lima, the capital of Peru, where he published two albums of hand-coloured lithographs, Recuerdos de Lima...

Article

Argentinian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1865, in Buenos Aires.

Engraver, lithographer, illustrator.

The work of Carlos Clerice was featured at the Engraving in Argentina exhibition in Rosario in 1942. As early as 1879, he illustrated the first edition of Martín Fierro (), the story of a gaucho by the Argentinian writer José Hernadez. He helped to illustrate various magazines and completed numerous lithographs....

Article

Esther Acevedo

(b Mexico City, 1836; d Mexico City, 1868).

Mexican illustrator and printmaker. According to the obituary by Hilarión Frías y Soto, Escalante “was fortunate enough to escape scholastic corruption … His training was artistic, though disgracefully very incomplete.” This may indicate that Escalante trained in lithographic workshops without attending the Academia de S. Carlos, a recently restructured school for artists.

Although Escalante’s portrait of Pedro Picasso—his music teacher—was accepted at the Academia’s exhibition of 1855, his work as an illustrator did not take an academic route. He became involved in liberal politics at the end of the Three Year War in 1861 and was the first caricaturist for the biweekly newspaper review La Orquesta, which he founded that year with Carlos Alejandro Casarín, who used the pseudonym Roberto Macario in honor of the Honoré Daumier character Robert Macaire (a flattering swindler). Escalante chose to address local problems in his illustrations and both recorded and influenced the implementation of the liberal ideology and the strict enforcement of the ...

Article

Mexican, 19th century, male.

Born 1828, in Mérida (Yucatan); died 1899, in Mérida.

Painter, engraver, illustrator.

Article

Eloísa Uribe

(b Mexico City, 1833; d Mexico City, 1908).

Mexican illustrator and lithographer. He studied at the Escuela Militar de Ingenieros, Mexico City. When the school was reorganized following the American invasion of 1847, he was commissioned to execute portraits of the Child Heroes. During the French intervention he founded a number of political newspapers, including El espectro, El perico and Palo de ciego, for which he executed caricatures and lithographs. Persecution forced him into hiding, but he re-emerged in 1865 as interpreter and chief draughtsman to the Comisión Científica del Imperio. Following the death in 1868 of Constantino Escalante, Hernández became the caricaturist for the periodical La orquesta; he also produced lithographs for El artista (e.g. The Rattle; see Fernández, fig.). He collaborated with Hesiquio Iriarte on, among other things, illustrations for El libro rojo (1870), a novel by Vicente Riva Palacio, director of La orquesta. At the time of his death Hernández was producing caricatures for ...

Article

Aída Sierra Torres

(b Mexico City, ?1820; d Mexico City, 1897).

Mexican illustrator and printmaker. He probably began his career in 1847 in the workshop of the Murguía publishing house. In 1854, in collaboration with Andrés Campillo, he created an outstanding series of illustrations for the book Los mexicanos pintados por sí mismos, in which he portrayed character types (e.g. Great Poet, lithograph) in the manner of Honoré Daumier. In 1855 he founded the firm Litografía de Iriarte y Compañía. The following year he published portraits of famous personalities in the weekly review El Panorama. He was a co-founder in 1861 of the political fortnightly La Orquesta, on which he worked for more than ten years as an illustrator and eventually as a caricaturist and as editor. Iriarte continued to contribute to a number of periodicals, including El Renacimiento, and his firm also published the weekly San Baltazar (1869–70). He collaborated with Santiago Hernández on numerous illustrations for, among others, ...

Article

Alexandra Kennedy

(b Quito, Aug 18, 1842; d Quito, June 24, 1906).

Ecuadorean painter, illustrator, draughtsman, engraver, and teacher. He attended the first Escuela de Bellas Artes in Quito (1872–5) and was one of the most prolific and versatile Romantic artists in 19th-century Ecuador, working in several genres. His portraits of important figures included that of the historian Federico González Suárez (1883; Quito, Mus. A. Mod.). He illustrated González Suárez’s archaeological work Estudio histórico sobre los Cañaris (Quito, 1878), among others, and contributed illustrations of snails and molluscs for the French naturalist Auguste Cousin’s Faune malacologique de la République de l’Equateur (c. 1893–7; Quito, Archv Nat. Hist. Banco Cent. del Ecuador). In connection with the nationalist movement, Pinto tirelessly explored costumbrista and indigenist themes in dozens of drawings, watercolours, and engravings, many of them inspired by Cantares del pueblo ecuatoriano (1892) by the Romantic poet Juan León Mera. He painted such landscapes as El Chimborazo...

Article

Mexican, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1852, in Aguascalientes; died 20 January 1913, in Mexico.

Engraver, lithographer, draughtsman, illustrator.

José Posada was a teacher in Leon, Guanajuato, in 1873. He gave up teaching in 1878, moving to Mexico City to work as an engraver, though it is not known where he acquired his training. In the beginning, he worked for a publisher, illustrating almanacs, liturgies, legends, tales, prayers and even the texts of announcements, engraving on zinc, lead and steel. He espoused progressive ideas, and drew caricatures and satirical drawings for the opposition press. His work was devoted to chronicling Mexican life of the time, and the difficulties of people under the control of large property-owners. The compilation ...

Article

Mexican, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 6 July 1840, in Tematzalcingo; died 25 August 1912.

Painter, watercolourist, engraver, draughtsman, illustrator, lithographer. History painting, landscapes.

A pupil of Eugenio Landesio at the Academia de San Carlos in Mexico, Velasco spent several years studying landscape painting before becoming a teacher of perspective at the academy from 1868. Attracted to photography for a while, he quickly turned to lithography and published an album devoted to the flora of parts of Mexico in 1870. From 1874 he lived very close to the valley in Mexico from which he was to draw his best inspiration. One of his paintings illustrating this subject was awarded the Philadelphia Centenary Prize in 1876. Velasco, however, refusing to lock himself into a single subject, was to change course and move towards the representation of archaeological sites and history painting. It was in this spirit that as head of the Mexican delegation, he showed 78 paintings at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1889. This period in France, followed by various stays in Germany, Italy and Spain, ended in homesickness. This took Velasco back to Mexico, where he returned to teaching at the Academia de San Carlos and remained there. He engraved illustrations for botanical books. An objective painter of the Mexican landscape, of its flora and fauna, he demonstrated his faith in modernity....

Article

Aída Sierra Torres

(b Veracruz, 1848; d Tacubaya, Mexico City, Feb 14, 1904).

Mexican illustrator and lithographer. He began his career in 1869, making prints for the weekly La ilustración potosina in San Luis Potosí. He collaborated with Alejandro Casarín and Jesús Alamilla on illustrations using engravings coloured with pen for the novel Ensalada de pollos by José Tomás de Cuéllar. In these the use of a schematic design accentuated the appearance of the figures portrayed. He created caricatures (1872–3) for La orquesta and other periodicals, but he established his reputation with caricatures (1874–6) of government figures for the weekly Hijo Ahuizote. Villasana was a member of the political party of President Porfirio Díaz and in 1880 published ferocious caricatures of Díaz’s opponents in El coyote emplumado. He was co-publisher in 1883, with Ireneo Paz, of La patria ilustrada and in 1888 he founded his own weekly, México y sus costumbres; in both periodicals he published his own caricatures of public figures. In ...