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Monica E. Kupfer

(b Santiago de Veraguas, March 25, 1869; d Panama City, Nov 12, 1952).

Panamanian painter, draughtsman and printmaker. He is known chiefly as the designer of the national flag (1903) of Panama. He studied business administration and had a long career in public office. When Panama became independent in 1903, he became Secretario de Hacienda and in 1904 Consul-General ad-honorem to Hamburg. In 1908 he moved to New York, where he studied with Robert Henri, who strongly influenced his style of vigorous drawing, loose brushwork, distorted expressionist images and sombre colours, as in Head Study (1910; Panama City, R. Miró priv. col.; see Miró). He produced most of his work between 1910 and 1914 and again after the late 1930s; his main subject was the human figure, but he also painted portraits, landscapes and still-lifes. On his return to Panama in the 1930s he worked as an auditor in the Contraloría General. After his retirement he resumed painting and produced some of his most passionate works, such as ...


Atl, Dr  

Xavier Moyssén

[Murillo, Gerardo ]

(b Guadalajara, Oct 3, 1875; d Mexico City, Aug 14, 1964).

Mexican painter, printmaker, writer, theorist, vulcanologist and politician. Better known by his pseudonym, which signifies ‘Doctor Water’ in Náhuatl and which he adopted in 1902, Murillo first studied art in Guadalajara and from 1890 to 1896 at the Academia de San Carlos in Mexico City, where his vocation became clear. In 1899 he travelled to Europe and settled in Rome, where the work of Michelangelo had a profound impact on him. He travelled to other countries to study and to learn about avant-garde painting. He went back to Mexico in 1904 and seven years later returned to Europe, only to rush back when the Revolution broke out in Mexico. He joined the revolutionary movement, taking an active role in its various activities, including the muralist movement, through which he was associated with Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco and David Alfaro Siqueiros. Although he practised portrait painting, his passion was for landscape in a variety of techniques and materials, some of them invented by him; for example, he used ‘atlcolours’, which were simply crayons made of wax, resins and pigment with which he could obtain textures not obtainable with oil paint. His favoured supports were rigid surfaces such as wood or hardboard....


Argentinian, 19th century, male.

Painter, engraver.

Brocos lived and worked in Rio de Janeiro. However, he exhibited at the Royal Academy, London, and at the New Water-Colour Society in London from 1882 to 1891 and in Paris at the Salon des Artistes Français in 1888...


Jocelyn Fraillon Gray

(b Morges, Vaud, March 3, 1814; d Melbourne, Victoria, May 30, 1888).

Swiss painter, lithographer and photographer, active in Brazil and Australia. He attended a drawing school in Lausanne, where his teacher may have been Marc-Louis Arlaud (1772–1845), and is thought to have spent some time with the landscape painter Camille Flers in Paris c. 1836 en route to Bahia (Salvador), Brazil. In 1840 he moved to Rio de Janeiro, where he established himself as a painter of local views and exhibited with the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts, Rio. His Brazilian landscapes, of which the View of Gamboa (1852; Rio de Janeiro, Mus. N. B.A.) is an example, received critical acclaim for their vivacious lighting. As a photographer he fulfilled commissions in daguerreotype for Emperor Peter II, and with the figure painter Auguste Moreau he produced a set of 18 lithographs, Picturesque Rio de Janeiro, published in 1843–4. From 1852 to 1864 he worked as a portrait photographer in Switzerland and from ...


Jorge Luján-Muñoz

(b Guatemala City, Sept 16, 1781; d Guatemala City, Nov 21, 1845).

Guatemalan painter, printmaker, and medallist. He entered the mint in 1795 as an apprentice engraver but on the recommendation of its director, Pedro Garci-Aguirre, also became Master Corrector at the Escuela de Dibujo de la Sociedad Económica de Amigos del País, Guatemala City, in 1796, holding the post until 1804. He continued working at the mint until 1809 and demonstrated outstanding skill both as a medallist and engraver of coins and as an engraver and etcher. He returned to the mint in 1823 as second engraver, remaining in the post until his death.

Despite the quality of his work as a printmaker and medallist, Cabrera gained artistic recognition especially as a miniature painter, working mostly in watercolour on ivory in a meticulous technique. He produced some miniatures on religious themes and others of birds, but the majority, measuring no more than 50 mm in height or width, were portraits of members of the Guatemalan aristocracy and bourgeoisie. It is not known exactly how many he produced, but from the middle of the 1830s he began to number them, starting from 500; the highest known number of the approximately 200 authenticated miniatures is 745. Although he suffered some illness, he was most productive during the last five years of his life. An evolution can be discerned from his earliest works, dating from ...


Argentinian, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born at the end of the 18th century, in Buenos Aires; died 1878, in Buenos Aires.

Painter, lithographer. Figure compositions.

Camana was the founder of the Society for the Development of Art in Argentina in 1876, and also taught design to Doña Mamelita Rosas, wife of the famous general. He created the picture: ...


Fausto Ramírez

(b Mexico City, April 24, 1826; d Mexico City, Jan 8, 1889).

Mexican lithographer, draughtsman, and painter. He may have studied at the Academia de San Carlos, Mexico City, but it seems more likely that he trained professionally with the Italian lithographer, painter and stage designer Pedro Gualdi (fl 1838–c. 1851). He subsequently worked with another stage designer, the Frenchman Eduardo Rivière, producing lithographs of Rivière’s illustrations to his novel Antonio y Anita o los nuevos misterios de México (1851). Castro made drawings and c. 30 lithographs (with the help of J. Campilo among others) for the album México y sus alrededores (1855–6), published by Decaen. It was an album of urban landscapes and the most popular mid-century local customs, and gave rise to several successive editions, with the addition or substitution of some prints in order accommodate the historical events in Mexico up to the late 1860s. Facsimile editions were still publishing well into the 21st century. Copies of the album are housed in the Museo Nacional de Arte, the Museo de la Ciudad, and the Museo Nacional de Historia, Castillo de Chapultepec, Mexico City. It offers a characteristic, contemporary view of the capital, including depictions of buildings, squares, and streets embellished with figures representative of all social classes, professions, and occupations. In ...


Donald A. Rosenthal

(b El Limón, nr Samaná [now in the Dominican Republic], Sept 20, 1819; d Paris, Oct 8, 1856).

French painter and printmaker (see fig.). In 1822 Chassériau moved with his family to Paris, where he received a bourgeois upbringing under the supervision of an older brother. A precociously gifted draughtsman, he entered Ingres’s studio at the age of 11 and remained there until Ingres left to head the Académie de France in Rome in 1834. He made his Salon début in 1836 with several portraits and religious subjects, including Cain Accursed (Paris, priv. col.), for which he received a third-class medal. Among his many submissions in subsequent years were Susanna Bathing (1839, exh. Salon 1839; Paris, Louvre), a Marine Venus (1838; exh. Salon 1839; Paris, Louvre) and the Toilet of Esther (1841, exh. Salon 1842; Paris, Louvre); these three paintings of nude female figures combine an idealization derived from Ingres with a sensuality characteristic of Chassériau.

By 1840–41, when Chassériau rejoined Ingres in Rome, he had begun to turn away from his teacher’s linear stylization. He became increasingly critical of the academic curriculum and passed his time making sketches of the Italian countryside and studying Renaissance frescoes, which later influenced his approach to painting monumental decorations. His best easel paintings of the early 1840s, the portraits of the Dominican friar ...


Mexican, 19th century, male.

Born 1830; died 1891, in Toluca.

Painter, engraver. Scenes with figures, landscapes, architectural views.

Coto was a student at the San Alejandro academy in Mexico City, where his teacher was Eugenio Landesio. His works pay important witness to the history, architecture, culture, traditions and landscapes of Mexico....


Eloísa Uribe

(b England, 1797; d Tacubaya, Mexico City, April 27, 1842).

English painter, draughtsman and engraver, active in Mexico. He exhibited with the Royal Society of British Artists, of which he was a founder-member, between 1824 and 1829. Inspired by the writings of Alexander Humboldt, he travelled to Mexico in 1830 and from 1831 made a series of sketches of landscapes including views of mines, ranches and cities. Twenty-five oil paintings and more than a hundred watercolours and drawings in red chalk date from this period. On his return to England, his pictures were made into prints to form an album of colour lithographs. As the record of a travelling artist, the album contributed to a fashionable genre of the period. Egerton’s work depicted an abundant natural world and prosperous towns, with each urban or rural landscape inhabited by people dressed in traditional costume, who are generally positioned in the foreground and surrounded by typical local vegetation (e.g. View of the Valley of Mexico...


Blanca García Vega

Spanish family of engravers and painters. Domingo Estruch y Jordán (b Muro, Alicante, 1796; d Madrid, 1851) trained in Valencia with his uncle, Francisco Jordán (c. 1778–1832), and after living in Mallorca and in Havana, Cuba, he established himself in Barcelona. He was an académico de mérito at the Academia de S Carlos in Valencia and a corresponding member of the Real Sociedad de Fomento in Havana. He engraved many religious prints, the funerary monument of Mariano Alvarez de Castro (1816) and illustrations for Alonso de Ercilla’s La Araucana (Barcelona, 1827) and for José Oriol y Bernadet’s Tratado elemental completo de dibujo lineal (Barcelona, 2/1850), as well as maps. His son Juan Estruch (b Barcelona, 1820; d Madrid, 1883) was his father’s pupil and between 1836 and 1840 also trained in Italy. Juan became the leading engraver for the Dirección de Hidrografía, Madrid, and engraved many maps and plans. His engraved portraits include those of the artist ...


Jorge Luján-Muñoz

(b Guatemala City, Sept 4, 1787; d Guatemala City, March 22, 1867).

Guatemalan painter and printmaker. He was a pupil of the Guatemalan painter Juan José Rosales (1751–1816) and of Pedro Garci-Aguirre. He studied in the Escuela de Dibujo of the Sociedad de Amigos del País in Guatemala City, and he later taught there for more than 45 years; his role in training many artists was perhaps his greatest contribution. One of the first etchers and lithographers in Guatemala, in 1834 he was in charge of the lithographic reproduction of views of the indigenous ruins of Iximché and Utatlán published as illustrations (each 115×175 mm) in the Atlas geográfico del Estado de Guatemala (1835).

In 1835 Falla and other artists were commissioned to produce a collection of model drawings for the Academia de Estudios. In the same year he received a Guatemalan government award for one of his etchings and a commission for a portrait of General Francisco Morazán, the president of the Federation of Central America. Most of his pictures, almost all of them portraits, have been lost, but the quality of his brushwork and Neo-classical style can be appreciated in his portrait of ...


Mexican, 19th century, male.

Born 1828, in Mérida (Yucatan); died 1899, in Mérida.

Painter, engraver, illustrator.


Uruguayan, 19th century, male.

Born 26 September 1866, in Montevideo; died 26 August 1902, in Montevideo.

Painter, engraver. Military subjects.

Diogenes Hequet studied in Paris under the painter Truphème and the engraver Tauzin. He became famous in Uruguay for his National Events in which he retraces South America's major historical events....


Eloísa Uribe

(b Venária Reale, Jan 27, 1809; d Rome, Jan 29, 1879).

Italian painter, printmaker, teacher and writer, active in Mexico. He was a pupil of the Hungarian painter Károly Markó (i) and studied at the Accademia Nazionale di San Luca in Rome. There he met the Spanish Catalan painter Pelegrín Clavé, who in 1854 proposed to the governing body of the Academia de las Nobles Artes de San Carlos in Mexico that Landesio be engaged as professor for the perspective and landscape class, recommending him for his skill as a painter, engraver, lithographer and restorer. His work, which was influenced in particular by the landscapes of Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, was already known at the academy, since five of his paintings had been shown in the exhibitions of 1853 and 1854 and had subsequently been bought for the academy’s collection (e.g. View of Rome, 1853; Mexico City, Pal. B.A.). Once in Mexico, Landesio taught the students to work from nature and concentrated on perfecting their drawing before allowing them to use colour. His pupils included ...


Ricardo Pau-Llosa

(b Cuba, 1818; d Cuba, after 1860).

Cuban lithographer and painter. Cuba’s mid-19th-century boom in printmaking was due to the packaging and advertising needs of its tobacco industry. Laplante was the finest Cuban lithographer of the period, collaborating often with Luis Barañano (fl 1856), Federico Mialhe (1825–1889), and other artists, and realizing the thirty-eight lithographs that illustrate Justo Cantero’s Vistas de los principales ingenios de Cuba (1857). Laplante’s detailed depictions of rural life in Cuba, particularly the sugar plantation, are invaluable windows into the period, as are paintings such as Trinidad, General View from the Loma de la Vigía (1852; Havana, Mus. N. B.A.).

Castro, M. de. El arte en Cuba. Miami, 1970, p. 38.Libby, Gary Russell. Two Centuries of Cuban Art, 1759–1959. Sarasota, FL, Ringling Mus. A.; Daytona Beach, FL, Museum of Arts and Scienes, 1980. Exhibition catalog.Ades, Dawn, Brett, Guy, Carlin, Stanton Loomis, and O’Neill, Rosemary...


Mónica Martí Cotarelo


(b Puebla, 1789; d Puebla, 1860).

Mexican architect, sculptor, painter, lithographer, and teacher. He was the leading figure in Puebla in the fields of architecture, sculpture, painting, and drawing during the early 19th century. He was director of the Academia de Dibujo in Puebla from its foundation in 1814 and the first recipient of a scholarship from the academy, which allowed him to go to Paris (1824–1827), where he studied architecture, drawing, and lithography. He also visited museums, factories, and prisons, intending to introduce French developments and systems into Puebla. On his return to Mexico he devoted himself to intense public activity, architectural reform, painting, lithography, and teaching, and experiments in industrialized production. Among his most important sculptural works is the completion (1819) of the ciprés (altarpiece with baldacchino) for Puebla Cathedral, which had been left unfinished on the death of Manuel Tolsá. It combines a high altar, a sepulchral monument, and a sanctuary of the Virgin, and it is one of the most spectacular examples of Mexican neoclassicism. From ...


Mexican, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active fromc.1910 active in the USA.

Born 7 February 1874, in Guadalajara; died 1943 or 1934.

Painter, engraver. Landscapes, flowers.

Xavier Martinez y Orozco studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris under the direction of Gérome and Carrière. He lived and worked in Piémont, California. He received a commendation at the Paris Exposition Universelle of ...


Ann Harlow and Sally Mills

[Javier Timoteo Martinez y Orozco]

(b Guadalajara, Mexico, Feb 7, 1869; d Carmel, CA, Jan 13, 1943).

American painter and printmaker of Mexican birth. At a young age he began sketching and painting in watercolor and attended art classes at the Liceo de Varones in his native Guadalajara; later he studied Pre-Columbian excavations and designs, taking special interest in his own Tarascan Indian heritage. His mother died in 1886, and he was taken under the wing of (and possibly adopted by) the socially prominent Rosalia La Bastida de Coney. After her husband, Alexander K. Coney, became Mexican Consul-General in San Francisco in 1892, Martinez joined them and in 1893 enrolled at the Mark Hopkins Institute of Art, where he studied under Arthur F. Mathews. Although he was handicapped at first by his limited English, he was a gifted and favored pupil, who by the time he graduated in 1897 had won the school’s highest honors and been appointed assistant to Mathews, by then the school’s director.

Martinez traveled to Paris in the autumn of ...


Nelly Perazzo

(b Buenos Aires, Feb 12, 1813; d Quilmes, nr Buenos Aires, Sept 10, 1894).

Argentine painter and lithographer. He studied drawing with Josef Guth at the University of Buenos Aires from 1827 to 1830. He was the first Argentine artist to complete his training within the country and is considered the earliest to have produced noteworthy work. He began as a miniaturist, painting portraits in collaboration with another Argentine painter, Fernando García del Molino (1813–99), including a portrait of the married couple Juan Manuel de Rosas and Encarnación Ezcurra (1836; García Lawson col.) and one of Encarnación Ezcurra (1839; Buenos Aires, Mus. Hist. N.). In 1841 he published eight lithographs depicting regional customs and manners as part of a large series printed by the firm Ibarra. In 1842 he travelled to Rio de Janeiro; on his return in 1844 his album Usos y costumbres del Río de la Plata, including prints such as Washerwomen and Army Parade, was published by the Litografía de las Artes, the lithographic workshop of ...