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Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 24 September 1930, in Benicia (California); died 2 November 1992, in Benicia.

Ceramicist, sculptor, painter, printmaker, draughtsman. Figures.

Pop Art, Funk Art.

Robert Arneson studied at the College of Marin Kentfield, California (1949-1951), California College of Arts and Crafts (...

Article

Canadian First Nations (We Wai Kai/Cape Mudge Band), 21st century, male.

Born 1975, in Richmond (British Columbia).

Painter, sculptor, printmaker, photographer.

The aesthetic of Sonny Assu (Liǥwilda’x̱w/Laich-kwil-tach) is a confluence of Northwest Coast formline motifs and popular Western culture. He is well versed in the traditional Kwakwaka’wakw arts of drum, blanket and basket making and uses these as the starting place of many of his artworks. Drawing on a pop sensibility, mass-media culture is used as a conduit to explore and expose these Kwakwaka’wakw traditions as well as the artist’s own mixed heritage. By bringing these seemingly desperate elements together, Assu’s works challenge popular notions of authenticity regarding Indigenous people and their art. Moreover, while the works may appear whimsical at first glance, they offer a sharp critique of Western society’s culture of consumption as it relates to colonisation, both historical and ongoing, in North America....

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1930, in Chikasha (Oklahoma).

Engraver.

Denis Beall exhibited at the Paris Biennale of 1963. Although he drew inspiration from Nouvelle Figuration and Pop Art, his choice of subject matter nevertheless shows him to be close to a certain kind of Surrealism. He is represented in museums in London (Victoria and Albert Museum), Oakland and San Francisco....

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 18 November 1933, in McPherson (Kansas).

Painter, draughtsman, printmaker, collage artist, assemblage artist, sculptor, film maker.

Pop Art, Funk Art.

Bruce Conner studied at Wichita University; at the University of Nebraska, Lincoln where he received a BFA in 1956; at Brooklyn Art School (...

Article

Frederick R. Brandt

(b Buffalo, NY, June 16, 1930; d Dec 17, 1998).

American painter and printmaker. He studied painting in Mexico City from 1957 to 1959 with John Golding (b 1929) under the terms of the G.I. Bill. His reputation as a Pop artist was established by his first New York one-man exhibition in 1963 where he showed his first acrylic paintings of the American highway and industrial landscape, such as Highway U.S. 1 – No. 3 (1963; Richmond, VA Mus. F.A.). Such large-scale canvases visually transported the viewer through a time sequence, as if travelling along a highway, catching glimpses of trees, dividing lines, signs and route markers. In subsequent works D’Arcangelo continued to examine the American landscape both as directly experienced and in the form of generalized contemporary symbols. An essentially flat and impersonal style allowed him to suggest an illusionistic space without sacrificing the viewer’s consciousness of the picture plane. This ambiguity between real and fictive space is further enforced in works such as ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1935, in Cincinnati.

Painter (gouache), watercolourist, assemblage artist, happenings artist, draughtsman, lithographer, photographer.

Neo-Dadaism, Pop Art.

Jim Dine spent his childhood in his father’s painting and plumbing tool shop. He studied at the University of Cincinnati and then at Ohio University, leaving with a Bachelor of Arts in 1957. He also followed courses at Boston Museum School. In 1958 he settled in New York, participating in the birth of Pop Art and, more especially, Happening Art, participating in avant-garde group exhibitions. However, this allegiance to Pop Art has to be moderated to some extent; even though historically he lived this experience, he always added a somewhat poetic, sentimental nuance and retained an attachment to pictorial problems, something that brought him closer to another artist who found himself isolated during this period: Cy Twombly....

Article

Jean E. Feinberg

(b Cincinnati, OH, June 6, 1935).

American painter, sculptor, printmaker, illustrator, performance artist, stage designer and poet. He studied art at the Cincinnati Arts Academy (1951–3) and later at the Boston Museum School and Ohio University (1954–7). In 1957 he married Nancy Minto and the following year they moved to New York. Dine’s first involvement with the art world was in his Happenings of 1959–60. These historic theatrical events, for example The Smiling Workman (performed at the Judson Gallery, New York, 1959), took place in chaotic, makeshift environments built by the artist–performer. During the same period he created his first assemblages, which incorporated found materials. Simultaneously he developed the method by which he produced his best known work—paintings, drawings, prints and sculptures that depict and expressively interpret common images and objects.

Clothing and domestic objects featured prominently in Dine’s paintings of the 1960s, with a range of favoured motifs including ties, shoes and bathroom items such as basins, showers and toothbrushes (e.g. ...

Article

American, 20th – 21st century, female.

Born 1949, in New Haven (Connecticut).

Painter (mixed media), draughtswoman, watercolourist, engraver, lithographer.

Neo-Pop Art.

Carroll Dunham almost always paints on panels, integrating the natural unevenness of the wood into the structure of the work. Influenced by Pop Art, she creates biomorphic abstractions and tragi-comic figures combining grotesqueness and power. These creatures, which come from comic book culture and what is known as 'low art', are nevertheless painted with a skill that places them in the pictorial tradition of 'high art'. Peter Schjeldahl has compared her work to a confrontation between and a graffitist in a public toilet and Helen Frankenthaler. The interior violence of the paintings became more accentuated in the 1990s, expressing the multiple contradictions of contemporary American society....

Article

Reena Jana

(b Cologne, Germany, 1969).

American mixed-media artist of German birth and Asian descent. Ezawa studied at the Kunstakademie in Düsseldorf (1990–94) before moving to San Francisco in 1994. He received a BFA from the San Francisco Art Institute (1995) and an MFA from Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA (2003). Ezawa is not a photographer, but his work centers around photography; he has used a variety of media, from digital animations to paper collages and aquatint prints, to revisit some of the world’s most familiar, infamous and historically significant news photographs, television broadcasts and motion-picture stills (see The Simpson Verdict). All of Ezawa’s work utilizes the artist’s signature style of flat, simple renderings that are cartoonlike and also suggest the streamlined and colorful style of Pop artist Katz, Alex.

Ezawa’s project, The History of Photography Remix (2004–6), exemplifies his approach to exploring the power of photographs as a mirror of reality and yet also a force that can manipulate memories of events and people. The project consists of images appropriated from art history textbooks, such as American photographer Cindy Sherman’s ...

Article

American, 20th century, female.

Active in England between 1960 and 1985.

Born 1942, in Hollywood, Los Angeles (California).

Painter, draughtswoman, sculptor, engraver.

Pop Art.

The Brotherhood of Ruralists.

Jann Haworth studied art at UCLA, California, and the Slade School of Art in London, where she held her first public exhibition in ...

Article

Kristine Stiles

(b New Castle, IN, Sept 13, 1928).

American painter, sculptor, and printmaker. He studied at the Art Institute of Chicago (1949–53), the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture in Maine (summer 1953) and Edinburgh University and Edinburgh College of Art (1953–4), before settling in New York in 1954. There in the late 1950s he began assembling wood sculptures from found materials, often stencilling painted words on to them, as in Moon (h. 1.98 m, 1960; New York, MOMA). He called these works Herms after the quadrangular, stone stelae guardian figures that served as signposts in crossroads in ancient Greece and Rome. Indiana called himself a ‘sign painter’ to suggest the humble origins of his artistic activity in the American work ethic and to indicate his fascination with the use of words in signs. Joining his interest in Americana with the formal and signifying elements of signs, he visualized the superficial and illusory American Dream in paintings characterized by flat bright colours and clearly defined contours influenced by the hard-edge paintings by friends such as Ellsworth Kelly and Jack Youngerman....

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 15 May 1930, in Allendale (South Carolina) or Augusta (Georgia).

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman, printmaker, mixed media, costume and set designer, illustrator. Encaustic.

Neo-Dadaism, Pop Art.

Jasper Johns grew up in South Carolina. He attended courses in art and painting at the University of South Carolina and, in 1948, enrolled in a commercial art school for two semesters in New York City. He served in the US Army for two years during the Korean War but was able to resume his studies at City College in New York in 1953, thanks to the GI Bill. It was at this time that he met his lifelong friend Robert Rauschenberg, the composer John Cage, and the dancer Merce Cunningham. He acted as artistic adviser for Cage and Cunningham’s dance company until 1972, collaborating with painters such as Robert Morris, Frank Stella, Bruce Nauman, and Andy Warhol. He lives and works in New York State and St Martin in the French West Indies. He has been a member of the New York Academy of Arts and Letters since 1988....

Article

Michael Crichton

(b Augusta, GA, May 15, 1930).

American painter, sculptor, and printmaker. With Robert Rauschenberg, he was one of the leading figures in the American Pop art movement, and he became particularly well known for his use of the imagery of targets, flags, maps, and other instantly recognizable subjects. Although he attended the University of South Carolina for over a year, and later briefly attended an art school in New York, Johns is considered a self-taught artist. His readings in psychology and philosophy, particularly the work of Wittgenstein; his study of Cézanne, Duchamp, Leonardo, Picasso, and other artists; and his love of poetry have all found expression in his work. His attention to history and his logical rigour led him to create a progressive body of work.

In 1954, after a dream, Johns painted a picture of the American flag (see fig.). At the time he was living in New York, as a struggling young artist. During the three years that followed, Johns painted more flags, as well as targets, alphabets, and other emblematic, impersonal images. None of this work was formally exhibited until ...

Article

American, 20th – 21st century, female.

Born 1952, in San Antonio (Texas).

Painter (oil), printmaker. Portraits.

Pop Art.

Deborah Kass studied at the Art Students' League (1968-1970), the Whitney Museum of American Art Independent Study Program (1972), and Carnegie-Mellon University, obtaining a BFA in painting. She taught at the Rhode Island School of Design, the Art Institute of Chicago, the Boston Museum School of Fine Arts, the State University of New York, and the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture....

Article

Marco Livingstone

(b Cleveland, OH, Oct 29, 1932; d Los Angeles, CA, Oct 21, 2007).

American painter and printmaker. Born Ronald Brooks and brought up by his mother and Viennese Jewish stepfather, at an early age he developed a cosmopolitan outlook and compassionate socialism that had a permanent effect on him. Fired by discussions about the Republican cause in the Spanish Civil War and by the seam of European history represented by his stepfather and stepgrandmother, who also came to live with the family, he educated himself as much through various voyages as a merchant seaman in Latin America as through spells at art schools, first at the Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art, New York, in 1950 and in 1951–2 at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Vienna, under Albert Paris von Gütersloh. After his marriage in 1953 to Elsi Roessler, a fellow American student whom he had met in Vienna, he made his first extended visit to the quiet Catalan port of San Felíu de Guixols, to which he was to return on numerous occasions over the next 30 years. From ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 27 October, 1923, in New York; died 29 September 1997, in New York.

Painter, draughtsman, sculptor, lithographer. Murals.

Pop Art.

In 1939, Roy Lichtenstein participated in the summer classes at the Art Students’ League in New York, where he was taught by Reginald Marsh. From 1940 to 1942, he studied at Ohio State University, with Hoyt L. Sherman before being drafted into military service in Europe from 1943 to 1945. After World War II he briefly stayed in Paris where he studied French language and civilization. From 1946 to 1948, he resumed his art studies at the School of Fine Arts of Ohio State University thanks to a G.I. Bill (an ex-combatants’ bursary). He taught art from 1948 to 1951, when he moved to Cleveland, Ohio, where he worked as a teacher, designer, and decorator. In 1957, he became assistant professor of art at the State University of New York at Oswego. In 1960, he was appointed to Douglass College at Rutgers University, New Jersey, where he met Allan Kaprow. In 1963, he took a one-year leave and settled in New York. At the end of the year he resigned from Rutgers University to dedicate himself to his art. He settled in Southampton, Long Island, in 1970. In 1977, he obtained the Skowhegan Medal for Painting and received a Doctorate of Fine Arts from California Institute of the Arts at Valencia, an honorary Doctorate of Fine Arts from Southampton College in New York in 1980, an honorary Doctorate of Humanities from his alma mater, Ohio State University in 1988, an honorary doctorate from the Royal College of Art, London, in 1993, and an honorary Doctorate of Fine Arts from George Washington University, in Washington, DC. In 1979, he was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in New York....

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 23 November 1939, in Chicago.

Painter, engraver.

Pop Art.

John Loring was a student at Yale University in 1960. From 1961 to 1964 he was the pupil of Roger Chastel at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, and a student at the engraving studio of Johnny Friedlander. He exhibited in Paris in ...

Article

Barbara Haskell

(Thure)

(b Stockholm, Jan 28, 1929).

American sculptor, draughtsman, printmaker, performance artist, and writer of Swedish birth. He was brought from Sweden to the USA as an infant and moved with his family to Chicago in 1936 following his father’s appointment to the consulship there. Except for four years of study (1946–50) at Yale University in New Haven, CT, during which time he decided to pursue a career in art, Chicago remained his home until his move to New York in 1956. Within two years of this move, Oldenburg had become part of a group of artists who challenged Abstract Expressionism by modifying its thickly impastoed bravura paint with figurative images and found objects. Oldenburg’s first one-man show in 1959, at the Judson Gallery in New York, included figurative drawings and papier mâché sculptures. For his second show, also at the Judson Gallery, in 1960, shared with Jim Dine, Oldenburg transformed his expressionist, figurative paintings into a found-object environment, ...

Article

Catherine M. Grant

(b Sacramento, CA, July 24, 1935).

American painter and printmaker. He studied in California at San Jose State College (1955–6) and Sacramento State College, where he received his MFA in 1958. His early paintings, influenced by the work of his friend and mentor Wayne Thiebaud, were figurative studies in thick impasto and muted tones of grey. In 1961 he started to paint comic-book superheroes, such as Superman (1961; see E. Claridge, p. 28), using a brighter palette. These were quickly followed by portraits of heroines from similar sources; by gradually emphasizing their sexuality and refining the quality of the paint, he produced increasingly vibrant and slick images. These paintings led to his trademark images of scantily clad or nude girls, taken from the pages of ‘pin-up’ magazines such as Playboy and pictured as if playing a role in a cartoon or commercial. In Miss Grapefruit Festival (1964; San Francisco, CA, MOMA), the model’s smiling head and torso are surrounded by grapefruit, with the ‘Sunkist’ logo in the background. Ramos was identified with the Pop art movement because of his investigation of the iconography of such mass-produced sources as magazines, comics and advertisements; although his work of the early 1960s was at odds with Pop in its painterly technique, he went further than most in courting vulgarity, bad taste and sexual imagery, arousing antagonism from feminists. His concentration on the female nude continued beyond the Pop portraits of the 1960s when he began work in ...

Article

Marco Livingstone

(Milton Ernest)

(b Port Arthur, TX, Oct 22, 1925; d Captiva Island, FL, May 12, 2008).

American painter, sculptor, printmaker, photographer, and performance artist. While too much of an individualist ever to be fully a part of any movement, he acted as an important bridge between Abstract Expressionism and Pop art and can be credited as one of the major influences in the return to favour of representational art in the USA. As iconoclastic in his invention of new techniques as in his wide-ranging iconography of modern life, he suggested new possibilities that continued to be exploited by younger artists throughout the latter decades of the 20th century.

Rauschenberg studied at Kansas City Art Institute and School of Design from 1947 to 1948 under the terms of the GI Bill before travelling to Paris, where he attended the Académie Julian for a period of about six months. On reading about the work of Josef Albers he returned to the USA to study from autumn 1948 to spring ...