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Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 16 September 1886, in Strasbourg; died 7 June 1966, in Basel.

Collage artist, engraver, sculptor, draughtsman, illustrator, poet.

Dadaism.

Der Moderne Bund, Dadaist groups in Zurich and Cologne, Artistes Radicaux, Das Neue Leben, Paris Surrealist Group, Abstraction-Création.

Hans Arp joined the École des Arts et Métiers in Strasbourg in 1902, at the age of 16. In 1903 he began painting and contributed to a local magazine. In 1904 he made his first trip to Paris. From 1905 to 1907 he studied under Ludwig von Hoffmann at the fine arts academy in Weimar, where he attended modern art exhibitions. He returned to Strasbourg, which his family then left for Weggis, on the edge of the Lac des Quatre Cantons in Switzerland. Between 1908 and 1910 he made a second trip to Paris and worked for a time at the Académie Julian. In Weggis he completed his first Abstract compositions and learned the art of modelling. In 1911 he co-founded the group...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Active also in France.

Born 1902 , in Kattowitz, Germany (now Katowice, Poland); died 24 February 1975 , in Paris.

Photographer, Painter (gouache), sculptor, engraver, draughtsman, illustrator. Portraits.

Surrealist group.

Raised in a family of engineers, Hans Bellmer trained as a technical draughtsman at the polytechnic college in Berlin ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 1907, in Nantes; died 8 May 1977, in Paris.

Painter (gouache/mixed media), watercolourist, engraver, draughtsman, illustrator.

Surrealist group.

Attracted by the Surrealist milieu, Camille Bryen gave up telegraphy in Nantes to go to Paris in 1926. Apparently, he was invited by André Breton. In 1927, he published his first collection of poetry, ...

Article

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Active since 1961 active in France.

Born 26 April 1922, in Haine-St-Pierre; died 27 September 2005, in Paris.

Sculptor, collage artist, photomontage artist, monotype artist, illustrator. Designs for jewellery, monuments.

Kinetic Art.

Groups: Hainaut Surrealist group, Haute Nuit, Madí, CoBrA.

Pol Bury first stayed in France between 1929 and 1932. In 1938 he attended the academy of fine arts in Mons. In 1940 he made his debut in Surrealism with a journal entitled ...

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1913, in Milan; died 1993.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, engraver, sculptor, illustrator. Figures, landscapes, still-lifes, animals. Stage sets.

Clerici was a keen reader of the Surrealist review Le Minotaure in his youth, and this strongly influenced his later work.

From the outset of his career, he was active in creating stage sets for opera, ballet and the theatre, at the Fenice in Venice, the Rome opera house and other venues, for the works of Monteverdi, Purcell, Lulli, Goldoni and Stravinsky. He also worked as a book illustrator. In his more personal work, he first gained a reputation as a sculptor. After ...

Article

Spanish, 20th century, male.

Also active in France.

Born 11 May 1904, in Figueras (Catalonia); died 23 January 1989, in Port-Lligat.

Painter, sculptor, printmaker, illustrator, filmmaker, writer.

Paris Surrealist group.

Dalí was born into a middle-class family in Catalonia and named after a brother who had died the year before he was born, a fact that would later affect his conception of his own identity. Dalí’s exposure to art began early. The Impressionist painter Ramon Pichot (1872–1925) was a friend of his father’s, and as a child, Dalí attended the municipal drawing school in Figueras. By the age of 10 he had painted two ambitious works: ...

Article

British, 20th century, male.

Active from 1926 in France.

Born 27 December 1901, in London; died 4 May 1988, in Paris.

Painter, engraver, illustrator. Figure compositions, portraits, landscapes.

Surrealism.

London Group.

Stanley William Hayter was a painter's son who studied science at King's College, London, taking degrees in organic chemistry and geology. From 1922 to 1925, he worked for the Anglo-Iranian Oil Co. in Abadan, but then decided to abandon this career for art. In 1926, he settled in Paris, remaining there apart from his many journeys abroad and the years 1940 to 1950 which he spent in the USA. In Paris, he attended the Académie Julian, studying under the Polish engraver Joseph Hecht and Jacques Villon. In 1927, he set up his own studio in the Rue du Moulin Vert, open to all comers and to all kinds of research, later, in 1933, moving to 17 Rue Campagne Première, which became known as Atelier 17. Many of the great artists of the time joined him there, including Miró, Arp, Tanguy, Giacometti, Matta, Brauner, Kandinsky, Vieira da Silva, Alechinsky, Courtin, Ubac, as well as André Masson, with whom he explored automatic drawing. In the USA in the 1940s, Hayter came into contact with other European and American painters, such as Pollock, Rothko, Motherwell, Gorky and Baziotes. Subsequently, he returned to Paris and, in 1972, was awarded the Grand Prix of the City of Paris for his engraved work....

Article

Romanian, 20th century, male.

Active in France from 1930.

Born 10 October 1910, in Piatra Neamt; died 11 January 1987, in Paris.

Painter, sculptor, engraver, illustrator.

Surrealist group.

Jacques Herold was awarded a bursary to study at the school of fine art in Bucharest from 1925 to 1926...

Article

Cuban, 20th century, male.

Active also active in France.

Born 8 December 1902, in Sagua la Grande; died 11 September 1982, in Paris.

Painter (including gouache), pastellist, watercolourist, draughtsman, sculptor, engraver, illustrator, lithographer, potter. Murals.

Surrealist group.

After a brief period at the Academia Nacional de Bellas Artes San Alejandro in Havana from 1918 to 1923, Lam went to Spain and remained there from 1924 to 1938, first in Madrid and later Barcelona. By 1938 Spain had been devastated by civil war and Lam was forced to move to Paris. Picasso became very fond of Lam and introduced him to André Breton, Max Ernst and Victor Brauner, among others. From 1938 to 1941, Lam participated in the activities of the surrealist group, particularly from 1940 when he found himself in Marseilles with the surrealists who had been driven out of Paris by the war and the invasion of France.In 1940 Lam illustrated Breton's ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 4 January 1896, in Balagny (Oise); died 28 October 1987, in Paris.

Painter (including gouache), draughtsman, sculptor, engraver, illustrator. Stage sets.

Paris Surrealist group.

André Masson came from the region of Compiègne, Beauvais and Senlis. His father sold wallpaper. He lived in Balagny until the age of eight. Following a short stay in Lille his father's work took the family to Brussels, where he attended school until the age of 12. He then became an apprentice, working in the afternoons as a draughtsman in an embroidery studio and studying at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in the mornings and evenings....

Article

Leonor Morales

(b Guadalajara, Feb 19, 1887; d Mexico City, Oct 13, 1968).

Mexican painter, printmaker, illustrator and stage designer. In 1903 he began studying painting in Guadalajara under Félix Bernardelli, an Italian who had established a school of painting and music there, and he produced his first illustrations for Revista moderna, a magazine that promoted the Latin American modernist movement and for which his cousin, the poet Amado Nervo, wrote. In 1905 he enrolled at the Escuela Nacional de Arte in Mexico City, where Diego Rivera was also studying, and won a grant to study in Europe. After two years in Madrid, Montenegro moved in 1907 to Paris, where he continued his studies and had his first contact with Cubism, meeting Picasso, Braque and Gris.

After a short stay in Mexico, Montenegro returned to Paris. At the outbreak of World War I he moved to Barcelona and from there to Mallorca, where he lived as a fisherman for the next four years. During his stay in Europe he assimilated various influences, in particular from Symbolism, from Art Nouveau (especially Aubrey Beardsley) and from William Blake....

Article

British, 20th century, male.

Born 11 May 1889, in Kensington (London); died 11 July 1946, in Boscombe (Hampshire).

Painter, illustrator, designer, engraver. Figures, still-lifes.

London Group, 7&5 Society, Unit One group, English Surrealist Group.

Paul Nash was the brother of John Nash. In 1910 he was a student at the Slade School in London. During World War I he was appointed an official war artist, and brought back works from the front which he exhibited in London in 1918. He was already a member of the London Group, which brought together modern trends in art, when he became a member of the New English Art Club in 1919. In 1933, along with Ben Nicholson, he was one of the founders of the Unit One group, a set of painters, sculptors and architects whose members also included Henry Moore and Barbara Hepworth....

Article

Swiss, 20th century, male.

Active in France then in the USA.

Born 20 July 1900, in Basel; died 2 January 1962, in Sugar Loaf (New York), committed suicide.

Painter, engraver, writer, illustrator.

Abstraction-Création group, Paris Surrealist group.

Kurt Seligmann studied under Buchner and Ammann at the fine arts academy in Geneva. He returned to Basel, remaining there until 1927 prior to spending three years (1927-1930) studying under André Lhote in Paris and at the fine arts academy in Florence. He travelled to Greece in the company of Le Corbusier....

Article

Czech, 20th century, male.

Born 11 August 1899, in Cerma near Geiersberg, Bohemia; died 21 March 1942, in Prague.

Painter, watercolourist, collage artist, draughtsman, engraver, illustrator. Stage sets.

Devetsil Group, Prague Surrealist group.

Styrsky studied at the academy of fine art in Prague from 1920 to 1923...