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Article

Inmaculada Julián

(b Madrid, Feb 26, 1937).

Spanish painter, sculptor, potter, printmaker and stage designer . As a painter he was mainly self-taught. After working as a journalist in 1957, he left Spain in 1958 to avoid military service, settling in Paris. There he continued to work both as a journalist and painter. From 1968 to 1972 he lived in Milan, returning to Paris in 1973. His work developed from expressionism to realism (Nueva figurina), which reflected on the pictorial language and function of painting and the artist’s role in society. He manipulated ready-made images, words and elements derived from commercial art and the work of other painters. His pieces formed series whose titles referred to the legacy of the Spanish Civil War and the contemporary political situation to help make their critical point. His work frequently provoked controversy, for example his series Arcole Bridge and St Bernard’s Pass (1962–6) was based on the theme of Napoleon Bonaparte as a symbol of imperialism (e.g. ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 10 June 1880, in Chatou; died 10 September 1954, in Garches, as the result of an accident.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, pastellist, draughtsman (red chalk/charcoal/ink), sculptor (including bronze), engraver (wood/metal), lithographer, illustrator. Religious subjects, figures, portraits, nudes, hunting scenes, scenes with figures, horse racing scenes, landscapes, waterscapes, landscapes with figures, urban landscapes, seascapes, architectural views, still-lifes, flowers, fruit...

Article

British, 20th century, male.

Active in the USA since 1975.

Born 9 July 1937, in Bradford (West Yorkshire).

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, collage artist, draughtsman, engraver (etching/aquatint), lithographer, illustrator, draughtsman, photographer. Portraits, scenes with figures, interiors with figures, landscapes, still-lifes. Stage sets, stage costumes, painted ceramics...

Article

Judi Freeman

(b Argentan, Orne, Feb 4, 1881; d Gif-sur-Yvette, Seine-et-Oise, Aug 17, 1955).

French painter, draughtsman, illustrator, printmaker, stage designer, film maker, and ceramicist. Among the most prominent artists in Paris in the first half of the 20th century, he was prolific in many media and articulated a consistent position on the role of art in society in his many lectures and writings. His mature work underwent many changes, from a Cubist-derived abstraction in the 1910s to a distinctive realist imagery in the 1950s. Léger attracted numerous students to his various schools, and his ideas and philosophy were disseminated by modern artists throughout Europe and the Americas.

Born in rural Normandy, Léger often said that he was of ‘peasant stock’. Although his father was a cattle merchant, Léger was sent by his family to Caen in 1897 to be an apprentice in an architect’s office, where he remained until 1899. In 1900 he went to Paris and again worked in an architect’s office as a draughtsman. After compulsory military service in ...

Article

American, 20th century, female.

Born in New York.

Engraver, sculptor, designer. Stage costumes and sets, murals, ceramics.

Valerie J. Maynard studied at the New School, New York, and Goddard College, Plainfield (Vermont). She is based in Baltimore (Maryland). She has exhibited in Sweden, Nigeria and, in the USA, at the Studio Museum in Harlem, New York, in ...

Article

British, 20th century, male.

Born 6 November 1944, in Glasgow.

Performance artist, painter, sculptor, installation artist, printmaker, ceramicist.

Conceptual Art, Land Art.

Bruce McLean studied at Glasgow School of Art (1961-1963), and at St Martins School of Art in London (1963-1966) under Anthony Caro, Phillip King and William Tucker. He has taught at the Croydon School of Art (...

Article

Spanish, 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born 13 January 1895, in Jaén (Andalusia); died 4 April 1984, in Paris.

Painter, watercolourist, engraver, sculptor, draughtsman, ceramicist. Portraits, figures, nudes, landscapes, still-lifes, flowers. Stage costumes and sets, posters.

Manuel Ángeles Ortiz learned to paint in the studio of José Larrocha in Granada and then went to Madrid where he was taught by Cecilio Pla. A childhood friend of Federico García Lorca, he was linked to the group of writers, artists and poets known as ...

Article

Spanish, 20th century, male.

Active in France from 1904.

Born 25 October 1881, in Málaga; died 8 April 1973, in Mougins, France.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, pastellist, draughtsman (including ink), collage artist, monotype artist, sculptor, assemblage sculptor, ceramicist, printmaker (etching/drypoint/copper/aquatint/linocuts), lithographer, illustrator, writer. Mythological subjects, figure compositions, figures, nudes, interiors with figures, local scenes (bullfighting), scenes with figures, portraits, self-portraits, landscapes, seascapes, still-lifes, animals, flowers...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 12 February 1905, in Bully-les-Mines (Pas-de-Calais); died 14 May 1993, in Paris.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, draughtsman (including charcoal/wash), engraver, potter, scenographer. Figures, portraits, nudes, rustic scenes, fishing scenes, seascapes, landscapes, landscapes with figures, still-lifes, animals. Wall decorations, stage costumes and sets...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 27 May 1871, in Paris, France; died 13 February 1958, in Paris.

Painter (gouache), watercolourist, engraver, potter. Religious subjects, figures, landscapes. Stage sets, designs for stained glass, designs for tapestries.

Georges Rouault completed his primary education in 1885 and was apprenticed to stained-glass artists – first the Tamonis, then Hirsch. He received a direct offer from Albert Besnard for stained-glass windows for the School of Pharmacy to be made from his design sketches, but he refused out of loyalty to his employer. He was encouraged to consider painting as a career, having been introduced to the appreciation of art by his grandfather, Alexandre Champdavoine, who, modest white-collar worker though he was, knew and admired Honoré Daumier, Gustave Courbet, and Édouard Manet. Rouault achieved entry to the École Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris in 1891, first in Elie Delaunay’s studio, then in Gustave Moreau’s (where he met Henri Matisse, Albert Marquet, Rudolf Lehmann, Henri Evenepoel, and others). Though he failed twice at the Prix de Rome, he won the Prix Chenavard in 1894 and, by 1900, he had obtained a mention and a bronze medal. In 1903, as Gustave Moreau’s executor, he became the curator of the Musée Gustave Moreau in Paris....

Article

Mark Allen Svede

(b nr Cēsis, April 28, 1896; d Tbilisi, Georgia, July 14, 1944).

Latvian painter, printmaker, ceramicist, interior designer, tage and film set designer and theorist. He was the foremost ideologue for modernism in Latvia and was one of its greatest innovators. His militant defence of avant-garde principles befitted his experience as a soldier and as one of the artists who, after World War I, was denied a studio by the city officials and staged an armed occupation of the former premises of the Riga Art School. At the end of the war he painted in an Expressionist manner: In Church (1917; Riga, priv. col., see Suta, 1975, p. 19), for example, is an exaltation of Gothic form and primitivist rendering. Unlike his peers Jāzeps Grosvalds and Jēkabs Kazaks, he was extremely interested in Cubism and Constructivism, the theories of which informed his paintings, drawings, prints and occasional architectural projects of the 1920s. At this time he and his wife, the painter ...

Article

Russian, 20th century, male.

Active in France after 1920 (naturalised French citizen 1942).

Born 1 May 1902, in a suburb of Moscow; died 12 June 1978, in Roquebrune Cap-Martin or Monte Carlo.

Painter, watercolourist, lithographer. Figures, portraits, scenes with figures, interiors with figures, horse racing scenes, landscapes, harbour scenes, seascapes, still-lifes...