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Article

Judith Zilczer

Journal devoted to photography that was published from 1903 to 1917. Camera Work evolved from a quarterly journal of photography to become one of the most ground-breaking and influential periodicals in American cultural history. Founded in January 1903 by photographer Alfred Stieglitz as the official publication of the Photo-Secession, the journal originally promoted the cause of photography as a fine art. As Stieglitz, its editor and publisher, expanded the journal’s scope to include essays on aesthetics, literature, criticism and modern art, Camera Work fueled intellectual discourse in early 20th-century America.

Camera Work mirrored the aesthetic philosophy of its founder Alfred Stieglitz. The journal resulted from his decade-long campaign to broaden and professionalize American photography. Serving for three years as editor of American Amateur Photographer (1893–6), Stieglitz championed the expressive potential of photography and advocated expanded exhibition opportunities comparable to those available in European photographic salons. In 1897, when the Society of Amateur Photographers merged with the New York Camera Club, Stieglitz convinced the enlarged organization to replace their modest leaflet with a more substantial quarterly journal, Camera Notes, which he edited until ...

Article

W. Iain Mackay

(b Carhuás, Ancash, Oct 2, 1857; d San Miguel de Tucumán, Dec 1922).

Peruvian painter, photographer, teacher, and critic. At the age of four he was brought to Lima, where he began to take lessons in art. From 1885 he traveled through France, Italy, and Belgium, and on returning to Latin America he settled in Buenos Aires, where he took up photography. In 1905 he returned to Lima, where he set up a workshop and art college at the Quinta Heeren, introducing the latest photographic techniques. On visiting Spain in 1908 Castillo discovered the historical genre paintings of Mariano Fortuny, y Marsal, and once back in Lima worked as a painter and as art critic for the magazines Prisma, Variedades, Actualidades, and Ilustración peruana. He later supported Daniel Hernández in founding (1919) the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes in Lima (see also Peru, Republic of, §XI). In parallel with the writer Ricardo Palma, Castillo was concerned with recording the traditions of Lima’s colonial past, and such paintings as the ...

Article

Hélène Bocard

(b St Germain-en-Laye, July 7, 1859; d Hennequeville, Normandy, Dec 29, 1936).

French photographer, writer and theorist. He was from a banking family and was financially secure, which enabled him to devote all his time to photography from 1880 to 1914. He was especially interested in the gum bichromate printing process, which could be easily hand tinted, and in which he achieved remarkably subtle effects. He tackled all the genres: oriental scenes, nudes, dancers (e.g. Behind the Scenes, 1900; New York, Met.), portraits (e.g. of Mlle D., pubd in Camera Work, 16 Oct 1906), landscapes and scenes from everyday life. In subject-matter his works oscillate between naturalism, as in Académie (1900; New York, Met.), and symbolism as in Struggle. His works were frequently exhibited (Paris, London, Vienna, New York) and were an instant success. In 1904 Alfred Stieglitz devoted a portfolio to Demachy in his review Camera Work.

Demachy was also a theorist of ‘art’ photography, giving numerous lectures, and writing articles for the ...

Article

Elizabeth K. Valkenier

(Nikolayevich)

(b Novaya Sot, nr Ostrogozhsk, June 8, 1837; d St Petersburg, April 6, 1887).

Russian painter and theorist. Born to a lower-middle-class provincial family, he first worked as a copyist clerk, then as a retoucher with an itinerant photographer. From 1857 to 1863 he attended the Imperial Academy of Arts in St Petersburg, then taught for five years at the School of Drawing run by the Society for the Promotion of Fine Arts. In November 1863, while still a student at the Academy, Kramskoy organized a protest against prescribed mythological themes in the competition for the final Gold Medal that carried a six-year stipend for study abroad. This brave gesture asserted the independence of Russian artists from the dictates of the Court and the state bureaucracy that controlled their work and livelihood. It also marked a decisive break with the Academy’s outdated form of Neo-classicism, patterned on Western models, which had lost popularity with the educated public but continued to be taught and favoured at the official level. After the break with the Academy, Kramskoy sustained a group of thirteen independent painters both organizationally and intellectually in keeping with the spirit of reform and renovation that swept Russia during the 1860s after the emancipation of the serfs. He set up a communal workshop (...

Article

Kevin Halliwell

(L’vovich)

(b Moscow, 1819; d St Petersburg, June 22, 1898).

Russian photographer, writer and critic. He began taking daguerreotypes in 1839 as soon as the process became known. After graduating from the faculty of law of Moscow University he entered the office of the Ministry of the Interior in St Petersburg. In 1843 he was sent on a government survey of mineral water in the Caucasus, where he took 25 daguerreotypes of Piatigorsk, Kislovodsk, Mount Meshuk and Beshtan (untraced). Five of these reached the lensmaker Charles Chevalier (1804–59) in Paris, who displayed two in his shop window. As a result of his success Levitsky decided to become a full-time daguerreotypist in 1844 and travelled to Vienna, Rome, Paris and London in order to study art, chemistry and physics. In 1845 he made his pioneering daguerreotype group portrait of N. V. Gogol’ among a Group of Russian Artists in Rome (see Morozov, 1986, p. 23), the first of a number of group portraits and portraits of writers and artists, which became his speciality. In Paris in ...

Article

Jessica S. McDonald

(b Lynn, MA, June 22, 1908; d Santa Fe, NM, Feb 26, 1993).

American art historian, curator, museum director, educator, and photographer. In his unprecedented seven-decade career as the preeminent historian of photography in the United States, Newhall established the medium’s vital role in art history and advanced its status as an independent art. Born into a prosperous family in Lynn, MA, Newhall studied art history at Harvard University, finishing his undergraduate studies in the spring of 1930 and returning in the fall as a graduate student. He enrolled in Paul J(oseph) Sachs’s course ‘Museum Work and Museum Problems’, the first such course offered in the United States. When Newhall completed his master’s degree in 1931, Sachs helped him obtain short-term employment at the Pennsylvania Museum of Art (now the Philadelphia Museum of Art), and the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, before recommending him for the position of librarian at the Museum of Modern Art (MOMA), New York, in 1935...

Article

Paolo Costantini

(b Biella, Aug 28, 1859; d Biella, Aug 12, 1943).

Italian photographer and mountaineer. He was the son of Giuseppe Venanzio (1823–76), an entrepreneur, economist, writer and photographic theorist who wrote one of the first Italian photographic treatises, Plico del fotografo (Turin, 1856, 2/1863), and the nephew of the statesman, scientist and mountaineer Quintino Sella. After finishing his military service in 1878 he attended college in Biella and began to take an interest in photography. Instruction from his father and advice from the professional Biella photographer Vittorio Besso (1828–95) encouraged his enthusiasm for photography, which he combined with his love of mountains.

Sella photographed on his many mountaineering expeditions in the Alps, the Caucasus, Alaska and the Himalayas (e.g. a series of panoramic views of the Alps, 1880–95), taking photographs with exceptional technical and scientific discipline. With the clarity and grandeur of his images he made a considerable contribution to landscape photography. He was elected an adviser to the Società Fotografica Italiana, founded in Florence in ...

Article

American, 19th–20th century, male.

Born 1 January 1864, in Hoboken, New Jersey; died 13 July 1946, in New York City.

Photographer, writer, editor, gallery owner, collector. Cityscapes, landscapes, portraits.

Pictorialism, Modernism. The Linked Ring, Photo-Secession

Alfred Stieglitz was the eldest of six children and attended New York schools before moving to Germany in 1881. There Stieglitz studied photography with photo-chemist Hermann Vogel beginning in 1883. Returning to New York in 1890, Stieglitz joined the Society of Amateur Photographers and became increasingly involved with Pictorialism. Often characterized by a soft-focus, painterly quality, the Pictorialist aesthetic appears in his pictures from this period, such as ...

Article

Anne Ehrenkranz

(b Schenectady, NY, June 1, 1828; d Surrey, July 6, 1901).

American painter, photographer and art critic. Stillman studied landscape painting with Frederick Church after graduating from Union College, Schenectady, in 1848. He met other painters of the Hudson River school in Church’s studio and read John Ruskin’s Modern Painters (1843–60), which had a great influence on him. He studied art in England in 1850 and formed friendships with Ruskin and Dante Gabriel Rossetti. In New York he exhibited paintings at the National Academy of Design and was called the ‘American Pre-Raphaelite’. Two of his paintings are in public collections: Saranac Lake (Boston, MA, Mus. F.A.) and the Philosopher’s Camp (Concord, MA, Free Lib.). In 1855 he founded a weekly art journal, Crayon, The, to which he contributed important reviews until 1861.

Stillman learnt photography in 1859 and made his first photographs, from wet-collodion plates, while guiding Ralph Waldo Emerson, Louis Agassiz and others through the Adirondack wilderness. The photographs are nature studies and show Stillman’s concern with composition and detail. While serving as consul in Rome and Crete, he photographed landscape and architectural views (now in Schenectady, NY, Un. Coll.). Stillman’s major work, a volume of carbon prints made from wet-collodion plates entitled ...

Article

Marita Sturken

Culture of images and visuality that creates meaning in our world today. This includes media forms such as photography, film, television, and digital media; art media such as painting, drawing, prints, and installations; architecture and design; comic books and graphic novels; fashion design, and other visual forms including the look of urban life itself. It also encompasses such social realms as art, news, popular culture, advertising and consumerism, politics, law, religion, and science and medicine. The term visual culture also refers to the interdisciplinary academic field of study that aims to study and understand the role that images and visuality play in our society; how images, gazes, and looks make meaning socially, culturally, and politically; how images are integrated with other media; and how visuality shapes power, meaning, and identity in contemporary global culture.

The emergence of the concept of visual culture as a means to think about the role of images in culture and as an academic field of study is a relatively recent phenomenon, emerging in the late 1980s and becoming established by the late 1990s. There were numerous factors that contributed to the idea that images should be understood and analysed across social arenas rather than as separate categories, including the impact of digital media on the circulation of images across social realms, the modern use of images from other social arenas (such as news and advertising) in art, and the cross-referencing of cultural forms displayed in popular culture and art. It was also influenced by the increasingly visible role played by images in political conflict and a general trend toward interdisciplinarity in academia....

Article

Polish, 20th century, male.

Born 24 February 1885, in Warsaw; died 17 September 1939, in Jeziory (Polesia), committed suicide.

Painter, photographer, art theorist, writer. Religious subjects, portraits, genre scenes.

Symbolism, Magic Realism.

Formisci (Formist) Group.

Stanislaw Ignacy Witkiewicz, son of the painter Stanislaw Witkiewicz, played an important role in a movement that revolutionised Polish art between the wars. He was a precursor of modern theatre, an art theoretician and philosopher. His spirit and his talent developed in the intellectual setting of the 'Young Poland' movement. He travelled to St Petersburg, Munich, London and particularly France on many occasions, and also took part in an anthropological expedition to Australia organised by Bronislaw Malinowski (...

Article

Chr. Will

( Arnold )

(b Amsterdam, Aug 13, 1860; d Amsterdam, April 13, 1923).

Dutch painter, printmaker, photographer and critic . He came from an old Amsterdam family of wealthy aristocrats with strong cultural ties. From 1876 to 1884 he was a pupil of August Allebé at the Rijksakademie van Beeldende Kunsten in Amsterdam. J. W. Kaiser (1813–1900) and Rudolf Stang (1831–1927) instructed him in graphic arts. In 1880 he co-founded St Luke’s Society of Artists with Jacobus van Looy and Antoon Derkinderen. In 1882 he visited Paris with van Looy. Between 1883 and 1888 he worked regularly at his family estate, Ewijkshoeve, south of Baarn, often staying there in the company of artistic friends—writers and musicians, as well as painters. With Jan Veth he founded the Nederlandsche Etsclub (Dutch Etching Club), which from 1885 made a strong contribution to the revival of etching in the Netherlands. Witsen was the first among his circle of friends to have his own etching press and also a camera....