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Article

Spanish, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born 2 May 1851, in Murcia; died 27 July 1913, in Paris.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, draughtsman (including charcoal), illustrator, photographer. Figures, genre scenes, street scenes, local scenes (bullfighting), interiors with figures, horses.

Enrique Atalaya Gonzales was a pupil of German Hernandez Amores. He settled in Paris in 1886 and later became a naturalised French citizen. He was a popular genre painter, but he also worked as an illustrator for Parisian publishing houses, providing illustrations for the works of Cervantes, among others. He was a brilliant painter of typical Spanish scenes, such as bullfights, inn scenes and wild horses....

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Active towards the middle of the 19th century.

Painter, photographer. Portraits, landscapes, urban landscapes.

Edmond Bacot was a frequent exhibitor at Paris Salons.

Article

Hélène Bocard

(b Grünebach, Westphalia, Prussia [now Germany], June 5, 1813; d Arcueil, Dec 22, 1889).

French photographer and painter of German origin. He was originally a painter, and he took up photography c. 1848. Within the framework of the Mission Héliographique established by the Commission des Monuments Historiques in 1851, he managed to establish himself as an architectural photographer (see Architectural photography). The Ministère de l’Intérieur ordered him to undertake a variety of projects, such as photographing construction work on the new Louvre (1854–69; see fig.) and the Rhône floods (1856). Other commissions were the albums Chemin de fer du Nord: Ligne de Paris à Boulogne (1855; see fig.) and L’Album des chemins de fer de Paris à Lyon et à la Méditerranée (1859; copies in Rochester, NY, Int. Mus. Phot.). From 1865 Baldus was content to exploit his stock of photographs.

Baldus was an Architectural photography of merit. He brought an originality of treatment to his modern subject-matter, using daring compositions, as in ...

Article

Norwegian, 19th century, male.

Born 13 April 1823, in Oslo; died 1 May 1906, in Oslo.

Painter, illustrator, photographer. Historical subjects, military portraits, equestrian portraits. Decorative schemes.

Balling studied decorative painting at the royal school of art in Oslo, after which he spent some time in Copenhagen and Bremen before studying for two years at the Berlin academy. He returned to Oslo in ...

Article

Canadian, 19th century, male.

Born 2 November 1828, in St Andrews (New Brunswick); died 9 January 1901, in Providence (Rhode Island).

Painter, draughtsman, watercolourist, engraver, photographer. Portraits, religious subjects, genre scenes, landscapes, seascapes, still-lifes.

Bannister's father was form Barbados and his mother was Scottish. He was born in Canada right after slavery was abolished. He went to live in New York were he was a sailor and settled in Boston in ...

Article

Janet Bishop

(b San Francisco, CA, May 14, 1932).

American painter. Native of the San Francisco Bay Area, known for careful observation and explicit use of snapshot-like photographic source material for paintings of family, cars, and residential neighborhoods. The artist rose to national and international prominence in early 1970s as part of the Photorealist movement (see Photorealism).

From the 1960s, Bechtle pursued a quiet realism based on the things he knew best, translating what seem to be ordinary scenes of middle-class American life into paintings. Following an early childhood in the Bay Area and Sacramento, his family settled in 1942 in Alameda, an island suburb adjacent to Oakland where his mother would occupy the same house for almost 60 years. The neighborhood appears in many of Bechtle’s paintings.

Bechtle earned both his BFA (1954) and his MFA (1958) at Oakland’s California College of Arts and Crafts, where he studied graphic design and then painting. During his student years and into the 1960s, Bechtle was influenced by Pop art’s precedent for the use of commercial subject matter and techniques. He was likewise interested in Bay Area figuration, especially the subjects and structure of paintings by ...

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Active mid-19th century.

Draughtsman, lithographer, photographer.

Article

Bertall  

French, 19th century, male.

Born 18 December 1820, in Paris; died 24 March 1883, in Soyons (Ardèche).

Draughtsman, engraver (wood), lithographer, illustrator, photographer.

Albert d'Arnoux elected to paint under this pseudonym at the suggestion of Honoré de Balzac. He emerged as one of the most prolific illustrators of the second half of the 19th century but, although his drawings are amusing, they lack any distinctive personality. He was chosen by the publishing house Barba to illustrate popular editions of the works of Fenimore Cooper, Paul de Kock, Pigault-Lebrun and others, and is reputed to have engraved some 3,600 plates for Barba alone. Bertall also furnished numerous comic illustrations for magazines such as ...

Article

American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in the United States.

Born 7 January 1830 , in Solingen, near Düsseldorf; died 18 February 1902 , in New York.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, draughtsman, illustrator, photographer. Figures, local figures, landscapes with figures, landscapes, waterscapes, mountainscapes, urban landscapes, seascapes, animals, insects...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1855, in Gruissan (Aude); died 1936, in Avignon.

Painter. Landscapes.

Bill settled in Toulon as a painter and photographer around 1884, then in Avignon where he studied under the landscape artist Paul Sain. From 1888, he regularly contributed works to the Salon des Artistes Français, where he received an honourable mention in ...

Article

Antoine Terrasse

(b Fontenay-aux-Roses, nr Paris, Oct 3, 1867; d Le Cannet, Jan 27, 1947).

French painter, printmaker and photographer. He is known particularly for the decorative qualities of his paintings and his individual use of colour. During his life he was associated with other artists, Edouard Vuillard being a good friend, and he was a member of the Nabis.

Bonnard spent some of his childhood at Grand-Lemps in the Isère, where his family owned a house surrounded by a large park. There was a farm adjoining the house, and from an early age he developed a love of nature and animals. After obtaining the baccalauréat at 18, he enrolled in the Law faculty in order to please his father, who wanted him to have a steady job. He graduated when he was 21, and he was sworn in as a barrister in 1889. In the meantime he was already drawing and painting, having enrolled at the Académie Julian, Paris, in 1887. In an attractive ...

Article

British, 19th century, male.

Born 1 September 1814, in London; died February 1896, in Brentford.

Watercolourist, lithographer, photographer. Railways, landscapes.

John Cooke Bourne was a pupil of the landscape engraver John Pye and was influenced by the watercolours of Thomas Girton and John Sell Cotman. At the age of 22, Bourne began sketching the construction work of the London and Birmingham Railway which was underway near his home in North London. The writer John Britton encouraged Bourne to translate his watercolours into lithographs, and in ...

Article

Mark W. Sullivan

(b Fairhaven, MA, April 30, 1823; d New York, April 25, 1892).

American painter and photographer. Bradford became a full-time artist about 1853, after spending a few years in the wholesale clothing business. In 1855 he set up a studio in Fairhaven, MA, and made a living by painting ship portraits. At the same time he studied with the slightly more experienced marine painter Albert van Beest (1820–60), and they collaborated on several works. By 1860 Bradford had moved to New York and was starting to gain a reputation for such paintings of the coast of Labrador as Ice Dwellers Watching the Invaders (c. 1870; New Bedford, MA, Whaling Mus.) and Greenland (), which were based on his own photographs and drawings (e.g. An Incident of Whaling and An Arctic Summer: Boring through the Pack in Melville Bay, 1871). From 1872 to 1874 he was in London, lecturing on the Arctic and publishing his book The Arctic Regions...

Article

Sanda Miller

(b Hobitza, Gorj, Feb 19, 1876; d Paris, March 16, 1957).

French sculptor, draughtsman, painter, and photographer of Romanian birth. He was one of the most influential 20th-century sculptors, but he left a relatively small body of work centred on 215 sculptures, of which about 50 are thought to have been lost or destroyed.

The fifth of seven children of a family of peasants, he left his tiny village c. 1887 for Slatina, after which he made his way to Craiova, the provincial capital of Oltenia. There he became a student at the School of Arts and Crafts in 1894. Mechanical technology, industrial design, mathematics, and physics figured prominently on his syllabus with some theoretical studies. He did not, therefore, receive a traditional academic training in sculpture; in fact he began studying at the newly founded Academy of Fine Arts in Bucharest, but even there instruction was still at an experimental stage, particularly in sculpture.

Brancusi is thought to have been prolific in his student years in Craiova. Various objects subsequently discovered on the premises of his old school have been attributed to him, some of them perhaps as collaborations with other fellow students, including a walnut casket (Craiova, Maria C. S. Nicolǎescu-Plopşor priv. col., see Brezianu, ...

Article

Mattie Boom

(b Rotterdam, Sept 12, 1857; d Amsterdam, June 5, 1923).

Dutch painter and photographer. He trained as a painter and draughtsman at the academy in The Hague. Although the Dutch painter Charles Rochussen taught the students history and landscape painting, Breitner’s interests did not lie in this area. In 1880 he worked for a year in the studio of Willem Maris after his academy training. Maris belonged to the Hague school of painters, who worked in the plein-air tradition of the French Barbizon school. Breitner painted outdoor life with them, although it was not the picturesqueness of the landscape or the Dutch skies that appealed to him. With Van Gogh he roamed the working-class districts of The Hague and through the dockyards of Rotterdam. Both artists recorded the vitality of city life in their sketchbooks. Breitner consciously chose these themes and motifs: he wanted to paint people going about their daily lives, and on his trips through the towns and docks he was constantly in search of motifs and impressions that he could use in his paintings....

Article

Swiss, 19th century, male.

Born 4 February 1816, in Gunswill (Lucerne); died 6 April 1873, in Basel.

Painter, draughtsman, photographer. Mythological subjects, religious subjects, portraits.

After spending time in Rome, Johann Bucher taught drawing in Lucerne in around 1846. Soon afterwards, however, he moved to Basel, where he stayed until his death. His best-known works are: ...

Article

American, 19th century, male.

Born 1844, in East Killingly (Connecticut).

Painter. Portraits, still-lifes.

Horace R. Burdick began his artistic career in 1884, after working for a photographer in Providence, Rhode Island. He studied in Boston at the Lowell Institute and the Fine Arts School. He was awarded a medal at the Mechanic's Institute, Boston, and was a member of the Boston Fine Arts Club....

Article

Jocelyn Fraillon Gray

(b Morges, Vaud, March 3, 1814; d Melbourne, Victoria, May 30, 1888).

Swiss painter, lithographer and photographer, active in Brazil and Australia. He attended a drawing school in Lausanne, where his teacher may have been Marc-Louis Arlaud (1772–1845), and is thought to have spent some time with the landscape painter Camille Flers in Paris c. 1836 en route to Bahia (Salvador), Brazil. In 1840 he moved to Rio de Janeiro, where he established himself as a painter of local views and exhibited with the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts, Rio. His Brazilian landscapes, of which the View of Gamboa (1852; Rio de Janeiro, Mus. N. B.A.) is an example, received critical acclaim for their vivacious lighting. As a photographer he fulfilled commissions in daguerreotype for Emperor Peter II, and with the figure painter Auguste Moreau he produced a set of 18 lithographs, Picturesque Rio de Janeiro, published in 1843–4. From 1852 to 1864 he worked as a portrait photographer in Switzerland and from ...

Article

American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1861, in Harwich (Massachusetts); died 1951, in Harwich.

Painter, photographer. Landscapes, seascapes.

Charles Drew Cahoon initially studied photography and worked in a photographic laboratory until about 1900, when he turned to painting. He was a prolific painter, thought to have produced between 2,500 and 3,000 paintings. These are largely land- and seascapes of Cape Cod, where he lived. He was the cousin of the noted painter and furniture decorator Ralph Cahoon....

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 1828 , in Fareins (Ain); died 1906 , in Paris.

Draughtsman, caricaturist, photographer. Portraits, figures.

Initially an industrial draughtsman, Étienne Carjat was drawn to the theatre and the literary world in Paris. He emerged as a caricaturist in 1854. In 1856 he founded the periodical ...