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Article

Isobel Whitelegg

Reviser Laura Gonzalez

[née Martínez de Anda, Dolores ]

(b Largos de Moreno, Jalisco, Apr 3, 1907; d Mexico City, Jul 31, 1993).

Mexican photographer. Born in Lagos de Moreno in the northern state of Jalisco, Martínez lived her first years in Guadalajara. After her parents’ separation in 1910, she moved to Mexico City with her father and brother. After her father’s sudden death in 1916, she was adopted by an older half-brother who sent her to a Catholic boarding school. At 18 she married a young friend and neighbor, Manuel Álvarez Bravo, who was then working at the Ministry of Finance as an accountant. In 1925 he was offered a better post in the southern city of Oaxaca, where the couple moved. Manuel started producing “weekend photographs” and Lola acted as his lab assistant. With Manuel’s camera, she started to produce her first photographs. On returning to Mexico City in 1927, she gave birth to a son, Manuel, and continued to assist her husband in the first stages of his career as a photographer. The couple displayed an active social agenda in the post-revolutionary cultural movement, sharing projects with friends who included Diego Rivera, David Alfaro Siqueiros, Rufino Tamayo, María Izquierdo, Julio Castellanos, Frances Toor, Tina Modotti, Luis Cardoza y Aragón, and some of the “Contemporáneos” (Xavier Villaurrutia, Carlos Mérida, Salvador Novo, and Carlos Pellicer). The Álvarez Bravos opened an informal gallery at their home in Tacubaya in ...

Article

Cuban, 20th century, male.

Active in France since 1992.

Born 8 September 1934, in Havana.

Painter, draughtsman, graphic designer, film maker.

Armas studied Cuban archaeology, and rupestrian art in particular. He was a caricaturist at first, then a graphic designer and film maker. He established the cartoon department at the Cuban institute of cinematic arts. He won several prizes for this work. In ...

Article

Argentinian, 20th century, male.

Born 14 May 1905, in Rosario (Santa Fé); died 13 October 1981, in Buenos Aires.

Painter, sculptor, engraver, collage artist, photomontage artist, assemblage artist. Figure compositions, landscapes, portraits, still-lifes, scenes with figures.

Nouvelle Figuration, Figuration Narrative.

Nuevo Realismo Group.

Berní was the son of Italian immigrants in Argentina. His childhood and early youth were marked by destitution. In 1915, when his father died, he went to live with his grandmother, where he had to travel 10 kilometres (six miles) on horseback to get to school every morning. From 1916, he was able to study stained glass window technique and attend a drawing course for young people. He was then influenced by the Post-Impressionism of the Spaniard, Joaquín Sorolla. He began to exhibit in 1918.From 1921 to 1924, he abandoned his studies and went to live among the peasants of the Pampa, where he painted landscapes. In 1925, he won a scholarship that enabled him to travel to Europe, where he stayed first in Madrid, then settled in Paris, where he frequented the studios of André Lhote and Othon Friesz at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière in Montparnasse and discovered the painting of Picasso, Braque and de Chirico. In 1928, still in Paris, he met the Surrealists, associating mainly with Aragon; he did not formally join the movement but he immersed himself in the psychological atmosphere of the group and its Marxist commitment. He read Marx, Engels and Lenin, and met Henri Lefebvre. His painting was influenced by his Surrealist friendships, particularly in the series of photomontages and collages that he embarked on in 1929. In 1930, he returned to Argentina, where he studied further and was still able in 1932 to exhibit his Surrealist paintings of 1929-1931, in which he had mainly applied Lautréamont's formula concerning encounters with random objects.On his return, he had founded the ...

Article

Jocelyn Fraillon Gray

(b Morges, Vaud, March 3, 1814; d Melbourne, Victoria, May 30, 1888).

Swiss painter, lithographer and photographer, active in Brazil and Australia. He attended a drawing school in Lausanne, where his teacher may have been Marc-Louis Arlaud (1772–1845), and is thought to have spent some time with the landscape painter Camille Flers in Paris c. 1836 en route to Bahia (Salvador), Brazil. In 1840 he moved to Rio de Janeiro, where he established himself as a painter of local views and exhibited with the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts, Rio. His Brazilian landscapes, of which the View of Gamboa (1852; Rio de Janeiro, Mus. N. B.A.) is an example, received critical acclaim for their vivacious lighting. As a photographer he fulfilled commissions in daguerreotype for Emperor Peter II, and with the figure painter Auguste Moreau he produced a set of 18 lithographs, Picturesque Rio de Janeiro, published in 1843–4. From 1852 to 1864 he worked as a portrait photographer in Switzerland and from ...

Article

Sérgio B. Martins

(b Rio de Janeiro, Jul 11, 1970).

Brazilian painter and photographer. Camargo was formally trained at the Escola de Belas-Artes (EBA) of the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro in the late 1990s, and is best known for her pictorial meditations on urban and cinematic landscapes.

The EBA was an artistically conservative institution during Camargo’s tenure as a student, but she was nevertheless able to develop a visual language that differed from the school’s general preference for academic and early modernist styles. She was part of a group of students who concentrated on issues of urban experience and visual culture in Rio de Janeiro. Unlike most of her classmates, though, who engaged mostly with the multimedia language of urban intervention, Camargo remained a painter, with sporadic forays into photography and photocollage.

The mediated image plays a crucial role in her painting, as Camargo often reread fragments of urban imagery through the lens of cinematography. Filmmakers Andrei Tarkovsky and Werner Herzog are two of her most recurrent references. Camargo’s cinematic approach is most evident in her first solo show ...

Article

Isobel Whitelegg

(b La Vega, Mantanzas, 1959).

Cuban painter, photographer, installation and performance artist, active also in the USA. Campos-Pons studied at the Higher Institute of Art, Havana (1980–85). Initially a painter, her graduation show Acoplamientos (1985; Havana, HIA) was concerned with representations of the female body as a device for prohibition and control, and her early work focused on the role of women in society and their representation within the history of art. In 1988 she went to the USA as a visiting artist at the Massachusetts College of Art, Boston, and in 1991 she settled permanently in Boston. Using shaped canvases, her first works displayed an interest in the interrelationship between painting and three-dimensional media. While living in the USA she also expanded her interest in sculpture and installation to include elements of video and performance.

Living abroad also brought her relationship to Cuba into sharper relief; work produced in the early 1990s addressed her own displacement in relation to the enforced migration of her ancestors as slaves, and the way in which an imagined Africa is collectively created in contemporary Cuba by story-telling, the cultivation of traditional medicinal plants and the practice of the Afro-Caribbean Santería religion. Using performance and video as a form of self-portraiture, another aspect of her practice focuses on her attempt to build a coherent identity as an Afro-Cuban woman living in the USA. With the aim of achieving simultaneity between performance and its immediate capture in the production of an unalterable image, her self-portraits employ large-format colour Polaroid photography, as in the diptych ...

Article

W. Iain Mackay

(b Carhuás, Ancash, Oct 2, 1857; d San Miguel de Tucumán, Dec 1922).

Peruvian painter, photographer, teacher and critic. At the age of four he was brought to Lima, where he began to take lessons in art. From 1885 he travelled through France, Italy and Belgium, and on returning to Latin America he settled in Buenos Aires, where he took up photography. In 1905 he returned to Lima, where he set up a workshop and art college at the Quinta Heeren, introducing the latest photographic techniques. On visiting Spain in 1908 Castillo discovered the historical genre paintings of Mariano Fortuny y Marsal, and once back in Lima worked as a painter and as art critic for the magazines Prisma, Variedades, Actualidades and Ilustración peruana. He later supported Daniel Hernández in founding (1919) the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes in Lima (see also Peru, Republic of, §XI). In parallel with the writer Ricardo Palma, Castillo was concerned with recording the traditions of Lima’s colonial past, and such paintings as the ...

Article

Argentinian, 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born 27 November 1937, in Buenos Aires.

Installation artist, painter, draughtsman, sculptor, photographer, mixed media.

Neo-Constructivism.

Cafone was a student at the school of art in Buenos Aires and at the Slade School in London. A sculptor who abandoned his sculptor's tools very early on, he looked to drawing as a medium through which to find an equivalent, a medium in which he proved to have astonishing dexterity. His paintings employ mixed media, incorporating sheets of lead, for example. Harking back to his work as an installation sculptor, he also took the venue in which he was exhibiting into account, if needs be creating certain works directly onto the walls of the gallery. If a certain preciousness of materials, and in particular the ornamental details, are set aside, there is a relationship here between Cofone's work and Minimalism, given their common refusal to attach any meaning to the completed object other than the one that defines - in the most material terms possible - its physical relationship with the artist who has created it, not in his image, but on his scale....

Article

Paraguayan, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1964, in Itauga Guazù.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver, film producer, video artist.

Enrique Collar entered the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes Manuel Belgrano in Buenos Aires in 1988. Since 1997 he has produced audiovisual works including videos like El Presente...

Article

W. Iain Mackay

(b Bordeaux, Sept 13, 1907; d Lima, June 4, 1970).

Peruvian painter, teacher and photographer of French birth. He studied at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes, Lima, under José Sabogal from 1920 before attending the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, in 1924. In 1925 he left to study under Fernand Léger, André Lhôte and Othon Friesz, among others, and he took part in various salons in Paris during the 1930s. His work at this time was influenced particularly by that of Cézanne, Matisse and Braque. In 1937 Grau returned to Peru, becoming one of the first representatives in Latin America of modern European painting, which stood in contrast with the Indigenist style then prevalent in Peru. Grau taught at the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos in Lima (1942) and was Director of the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes from 1945 to 1949. During this period his palette brightened, and by the 1950s he was showing considerable interest in Surrealism and in the art of such Pre-Columbian cultures as the Nazca and Chimú and particularly the Vicús (of which he had a substantial collection of artefacts). He returned to abstract art in the 1960s, using colour as an independent means of expression. In ...

Article

Roberto Pontual

(b Kozienice, April 12, 1921).

Brazilian sculptor, printmaker, painter and photographer of Polish birth. He left Poland in 1943 to study in Minsk and Leningrad (now St Petersburg), followed by further study with Willi Baumeister in Stuttgart (1945–7). In 1948 he moved to Brazil, living in São Paulo and later in Paraná (1952–6) and Rio de Janeiro (1956–8). The Paraná jungle aroused an interest in nature that was first expressed in paintings and drawings of vegetable forms. After leaving Brazil for Ibiza (1963) he made reliefs in earth and stones, using nature as a raw material rather than merely as a subject. His subsequent engraved reliefs of leaves or sand furrows, and wooden sculptures of the Bahian coast mangrove trees or the Amazonian jungle, were as much an ecological as an aesthetic statement. He frequently used photography to draw attention to such issues as the scorched Brazilian forests, for example in his book ...

Article

W. Iain Mackay

(de la Vega de los Ríos )

(b Yagua, Huari, Tacna, May 8, 1823; d San Mateo, Lima Province, May 14, 1869).

Peruvian painter and photographer. He commenced his studies under the Ecuadorean artist Javier Cortés (d after 1841) and then at the Academia Nacional de Dibujo y Pintura in Lima. In 1842 he went to Paris to study under Paul Delaroche at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. He toured Spain and Italy, visiting Venice, where he was able to study Renaissance works. Upon his return to Peru in 1849 he travelled round the southern highlands of Puno and Cuzco, which were to influence his future work.

In 1852 he was given a scholarship and returned to Paris to study under Charles Gleyre, witnessing Gleyre’s fashionable blend of the romantic and the classical. At this time he also started to develop an interest in portraying the indigenous Peruvian world. In 1855 he exhibited Mountain Dweller (c. 1855) at the first Exposition Universelle in Paris. Eventually his financial support from Peru was exhausted, and in ...

Article

Tirza Latimer

[Markovitch, Henriette Theodora]

b Paris, Nov 22, 1907; d Paris, July 16, 1997

French photographer and painter. Maar’s father was Croatian and her mother was from La Touraine in western France. She grew up in Argentina, where her father practised architecture, and was repatriated in 1926 to study at the Union Centrale des Arts Décoratifs, Ecole de Photographie and the Académie Julien in Paris. In the early 1930s she set up her first photography studio with her collaborator, Pierre Kéfer, sharing the darkroom with Georges Brassaï.

Maar was closely associated with the Surrealists in the mid-1930s, signing political tracts, taking photographs of the movement’s members and exhibiting in group exhibitions. She was seeing Georges Bataille when, in 1936, the poet Paul Eluard introduced her to Pablo Picasso at the Café Deux Magots. Picasso was apparently intrigued by her dark beauty, her edginess, her theatricality and her violence. According to Françoise Gilot: ‘She was wearing black gloves with little pink flowers appliquéd on them. She took off the gloves and picked up a long, pointed knife, which she began to drive into the table between her outstretched fingers to see how close she could come to each finger without actually cutting herself. From time to time she missed by a fraction of an inch and before she stopped playing with the knife, her hand was covered with blood’ (Gilot, pp. 85-6). Picasso, playing the scene out to its fullest, later enshrined the bloody gloves for display in his apartment. Picasso described Maar as his ‘weeping woman’ and painted her obsessively for almost a decade. She sat for portraits that included ...

Article

Argentinian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in Argentina.

Born 1963, in Buenos Aires.

Installation artist, draughtsman, photographer.

Jorge Macchi was one of the most important figures in the Argentinian art scene during the 1980s and 1990s. He studied at the Prilidiano Pueyrredón Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes in Buenos Aires and was appointed 'profesor nacional de pintura' (national teacher of painting)....

Article

Colombian, 20th century, male.

Born 1929, in Neira.

Painter, engraver, film maker.

David Manzur studied painting in Bogotá, the USA, the Canary Isles and Canada. He first exhibited in 1953. Manzur took part in the From Bonnard to Baselitz: A Decade of Acquisitions by the Prints Collection 1978-1988...

Article

Pedro Querejazu

(b La Plata [now Sucre], 1816; d Sucre, 1871).

Bolivian painter, photographer, museum founder, scientist, and soldier. He was self-taught as a painter and established a reputation through his work in various techniques. His major work was an album (1841–1860; Sucre, Bib. & Archv N.) composed of 116 watercolors of ordinary people, native and mestizo, fauna, flora, landscapes, and nature scenes of various regions of Bolivia. His work is spontaneous and naive, painted with an almost dry brush. The importance of his work lies principally in his realistic approach to his country and its natural environment. He also painted academic portraits, such as Casimiro Olañeta (1857; La Paz, priv. col.), and he established (c. 1845) the first Bolivian museum of cultural, mineral, plant, and animal specimens (dispersed after 1871). He took up photography towards the end of his life.

Chacón Torres, M. Pintores del siglo XIX, Bib. A. & Cult. Boliv.: A. & Artistas. La Paz, 1963....

Article

Ana Tapias

(b Barranquilla, 1946).

Venezuelan painter and photographer of Columbian birth. He studied at the Escuela de Artes Plásticas Julio Arraga, Maracaibo. He had his first one-man show in the Centro de Bellas Artes in Maracaibo (1964) and his second at Galería 22 in Caracas (1967). Obregón began working when official support in Venezuela for kinetic art was at its height. He thus seemed an isolated figure as he sought to make a symbolic, conceptual rediscovery of the Venezuelan landscape through two series of photographs tracing the ridge of El Avila Hill, Caracas, from dawn to dusk. In 1978 the Sala Mendoza mounted his exhibition El agua como cielo, and in the early 1980s the Museo de Bellas Artes in Caracas mounted Veinte disecciones. This exhibition, and another organized in 1988 by the Galería Sotavento, Caracas, was based on Obregón’s studies of the rose, which included watercolours and collages, as well as large-scale works on black linoleum in the style of negatives, all depicting the petals of a rose movingly but simply and without colour....

Article

Argentinian, 20th century, male.

Painter, intervention artist, video artist. Multimedia.

In 1995 Orta took part in the international contemporary art fair in Paris, held at the Yvonamor Palix art space. In 1996, he organised an exhibition revealing the diversity of his techniques at the gallery in Pointe du Dourven (Côtes-d'-Armor)....

Article

Brazilian, 20th century, female.

Born 1929, in Nova Friburgo; died 3 May 2004, in Rio de Janeiro.

Draughtsman, engraver, sculptor, film producer, performance artist.

Lygia Pape studied philosophy and aesthetics before taking up the visual arts. She was a member of the Frente group in Rio in ...

Article

María Antonia González-Arnal

(b Cúa, nr Caracas, ?1859; d Caracas, Nov 8, 1890).

Venezuelan painter. He settled in Caracas in 1878, alternating his work in a tobacco factory with copying and colouring photographic portraits. Rojas studied at the Academia de Bellas Artes, Caracas. In 1881 he worked as an assistant to the painter Antonio Herrera Toro on the decoration of Caracas Cathedral. In the Exposición Nacional (1883) he was awarded a silver medal for his only historical work, Death of Girardot in Bárbula (Caracas, Gal. A. N.). In the same year, with a government scholarship, he left for France; he registered at the Académie Julian and exhibited regularly at the Salon of the Société des Artistes Français between 1885 and 1890, receiving an award in 1886 for Misery (Caracas, Gal. A. N.). Rojas excelled in the academic techniques of his figure studies. Inspired by the Dutch tradition, he also painted several still-lifes, such as Still-life with Pheasant (c. 1884; Caracas, Gal. A. N.), as well as a small number of landscapes in an academic naturalist vein. In ...