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Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1912, in Ferrara.

Film maker, painter, writer. Landscapes.

An intuitive painter, Michelangelo Antonioni uses watercolour, oil and sometimes unexpected materials. He then makes photographic enlargements of his paintings and exhibits the enlargements. On several occasions he has taken his painter's brush to his films, colouring in natural settings artificially, notably in ...

Article

Cuban, 20th century, male.

Active in France since 1992.

Born 8 September 1934, in Havana.

Painter, draughtsman, graphic designer, film maker.

Armas studied Cuban archaeology, and rupestrian art in particular. He was a caricaturist at first, then a graphic designer and film maker. He established the cartoon department at the Cuban institute of cinematic arts. He won several prizes for this work. In ...

Article

Monica Bohm-Duchen

(b Haag, Austria, April 5, 1900; d Santa Barbara, CA, Sept 30, 1985).

American painter, designer, photographer and typographer, of Austrian birth. After serving in the Austrian army (1917–18), Bayer studied architecture under Professor Schmidthammer in Linz in 1919 and in 1920 worked with the architect Emanuel Margold in Darmstadt. From 1921 to 1923 he attended the Bauhaus in Weimar, studying mural painting (with Vasily Kandinsky) and typography; it was at this time that he created the Universal alphabet, consisting only of lowercase letters. In 1925 he returned to the Bauhaus, then in Dessau, as a teacher of advertising, layout and typography, remaining there until 1928. For the next ten years he was based in Berlin as a commercial artist: he worked as art manager of Vogue (1929–30) and as director of the Dorland advertising agency. Shortly after his first one-man exhibitions at the Galerie Povolotski, Paris, and at the Kunstlerbund März, Linz (both 1929), he created photomontages of a Surrealist nature, such as ...

Article

American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1861, in Harwich (Massachusetts); died 1951, in Harwich.

Painter, photographer. Landscapes, seascapes.

Charles Drew Cahoon initially studied photography and worked in a photographic laboratory until about 1900, when he turned to painting. He was a prolific painter, thought to have produced between 2,500 and 3,000 paintings. These are largely land- and seascapes of Cape Cod, where he lived. He was the cousin of the noted painter and furniture decorator Ralph Cahoon....

Article

Silvia Lucchesi

[Marius Pictor]

(b Bologna, Sept 8, 1852; d Venice, March 18, 1924).

Italian painter, photographer, architect and illustrator. He trained initially as a musician and only later became a painter, studying (1872–8) at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Bologna under the history and portrait painter Antonio Puccinelli (1822–97). He made several short trips to Paris and London before moving to Rome where he became friends with Vincenzo Cabianca (1827–1902), a plein-air painter, and joined the group founded by Nino Costa, In Arte Libertas (see Rome, §III, 7). He made his name in 1885 when he exhibited 18 paintings at the group’s first exhibition. In the 1880s he experimented with photography, and in certain cases photographs acted as preliminary stages for his paintings. In 1892 he settled definitively in Venice and two years later adopted the pseudonym ‘Marius Pictor’. His work expressed the romantic and literary climate of the fin-de-siècle, and his painting is linked with the work of such writers as Charles Baudelaire and Edgar Allan Poe. De Maria’s work derives from flower painting and from the painting of Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps; brushstrokes are carefully built up, and rough, chalky colour is thickly applied. He was extremely skilful in his manipulation of colour and light to express the richness of his imagination. He liked to create evocative images and to represent the most fantastic and unusual aspects of nature, as in the famous painting the ...

Article

Czech, 20th century, male.

Born 3 March 1883, in Pribram; died 13 January 1961, in Prague.

Photographer, painter. Portraits, nudes. Photobooks, oil pigment photographic prints.

Modernist photography. Photopurism.

In Munich from 1901 to 1903, Drtikol attended the Lehr- und Versuchsanstalt für Photographie, where Pictorialism was influential. After three years of military service, he founded his own studio in Pribram in ...

Article

Moroccan, 20th century, male.

Active also active in France.

Born 26 April 1934, in El Jadida.

Painter, draughtsman, lithographer, collage artist, film maker.

André Elbaz studied at Rabat's school of graphic art while at the same time taking drama classes at the city's theatre school. He began experimenting with collage while making posters for his theatre group, Mazagan, in El Jadida. Following a trip to France in ...

Article

Barbara Lange

Reviser Andrés Mario Zervigón

[Herzfeld, Helmut ]

(b Berlin, June 19, 1891; d Berlin, April 26, 1968).

German photomontagist, draughtsman, typographer, stage designer, and film director. After a difficult childhood owing to the persecution of his father for his political beliefs, he studied art at the Königliche Kunstgewerbeschule in Munich from 1907 to 1911, specializing in advertising art. In 1912 he took his first job in a paper packaging company (for which he completed graphic design work) in Mannheim, moving to Berlin in 1913, where he and his brother Wieland Herzfeld made contact with avant-garde circles. (Wieland changed his surname to Herzfelde in early 1914.) Heartfield’s experiences in World War I led him to conclude that the only worthy art was that which took account of social realities (see Eclipse of the Sun on the Rhine, 1957). He destroyed all his early work.

From 1916 Heartfield collaborated closely with George Grosz and in the summer of 1917, like Grosz, anglicized his name, although he did not adopt this form officially until after the war. His earnest criticism of bourgeois society found its expression in his commitment to the ...

Article

South African, 20th–21st century, male.

Born 28 April 1955, in Johannesburg.

Draughtsman, engraver, graphic designer, film producer, sculptor, theatre and opera designer and producer. Multimedia, animated films.

Land Art.

Although William Kentridge has practised his creativity in many domains and in a wide range of media (animated films, land art, sculpture, printmaking, theatre and opera design and production, installations), it is chiefly his large-scale charcoal drawings in process (drawing for animation) and his unique, short, animated films and their projection that have given him international fame....

Article

Julius Kaplan

(b nr Termonde, Sept 12, 1858; d Brussels, Nov 12, 1921).

Belgian painter, illustrator, sculptor, designer, photographer and writer. He was one of the foremost Symbolist artists and active supporters of avant-garde art in late 19th-century Belgium. His wealthy family lived in Bruges from 1859 to 1864, moved to Brussels in 1865, where Khnopff remained until his death, and spent their summers at a country home in Fosset, in the Ardennes. Fosset inspired numerous landscapes that owe a strong debt to Barbizon-style realism (see 1979 cat. rais., p. 210), which dominated advanced Belgian painting in the late 1870s. Khnopff abandoned law school in 1875, and, turning to literature and art, he studied with Xavier Mellery at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels. During visits to Paris (1877–80) he admired the work of Ingres and was especially attracted to the painterly art of Rubens, Rembrandt, the Venetian Renaissance and particularly Delacroix. At the Exposition Universelle of 1878 in Paris he discovered Gustave Moreau and Edward Burne-Jones, both of whom indelibly influenced his art. He studied with ...

Article

Latvian, 20th century, male.

Born 4 January 1895 , in Rŭjiena, Latvia; died 26 February 1938 , in Moscow

Painter, collage artist, photomontage artist, poster artist, lithographer, sculptor.

Constructivism, Vhutemas, Productivism, Suprematism.

Unovis, October.

Gustav Klucis studied at the City Art School in Riga (1913-1915), then at the school of design under the aegis of the Imperial Society for the Fostering of Art (1915-1917) in Petrograd (now St Petersburg). He completed his training at Vasily Meshkov’s school of design and painting, Il’ya Mashkov’s studio in the State Free Art Studio (Svoma) in Moscow, and the higher artistic and technical workshops (Vkhutemas) under the direction of Kazimir Malevich and Antoine Pevsner. An associate member of the INKhUK (Institute of Artistic Culture) productivist group in Moscow from 1921 to 1925, he taught courses at the Vkhutemas from 1924 to 1930. He was a founder member of the October group in 1928....

Article

Christoph Brockhaus

(Leopold Isidor)

(b Leitmeritz, northern Bohemia [now Litoměřice, Czech Republic], April 10, 1877; d Schloss Zwickledt, nr Wernstein, Aug 20, 1959).

Austrian draughtsman, illustrator, painter and writer. In 1892 he was apprenticed in Klagenfurt to the landscape photographer Alois Beer. Though learning very little, he remained there until 1896, when he attempted to commit suicide as a result of his unstable disposition. A brief period in the Austrian army in 1897 led to a nervous collapse, after which he was allowed to study art. In 1898 he moved to Munich, where he studied first at the private school run by the German painter Ludwig Schmidt-Reutte (1863–1909) and then briefly at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in the drawing class of Nikolaus Gysis in 1899. In Munich he first saw the graphic work of James Ensor, Goya, Max Klinger, Edvard Munch, Odilon Redon and Félicien Rops, finding Klinger’s work closest to his own aesthetic. He also read Arthur Schopenhauer’s pessimistic philosophy, which he found attractive, and befriended many artists, including the Elf Scharfrichter circle around Frank Wedekind. His work of the period largely consisted of ink and wash drawings modelled on Goya’s and Klinger’s aquatint technique. By their inclusion of fantastic monsters and deformed or maimed humans, these drawings revealed Kubin’s abiding interest in the macabre. Thematically they were related to Symbolism, as shown by the ink drawing ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 14 May 1935, in Rouen.

Painter, draughtsman, watercolourist, illustrator, photographer, writer.

In 1951 Georges Lemoine started training as a graphic designer, then during military service in Rabat registered at the École des Beaux-Arts. When he returned to Paris he studied lino-cutting and developed his skills as illustrator, in which he was helped by meeting the typographer Marcel Jacno. From ...

Article

Polish, 20th century, male.

Active in France from 1967.

Born 1941, in Warsaw.

Painter, screen printer, poster artist, photographer.

Tadeusz Lewandowski graduated from the faculty of painting at the academy of fine arts in Warsaw in 1966. He went on to teach at the École des Beaux-Arts in Cergy-Pontoise, France. His work featured in the exhibition ...

Article

John Milner

[Lisitsky, El’ ; Lisitsky, Lazar’ (Markovich )]

(b Pochinok, Smolensk province, Nov 23, 1890; d Moscow, Dec 30, 1941).

Russian draughtsman, architect, printmaker, painter, illustrator, designer, photographer, teacher, and theorist.

After attending school in Smolensk, he enrolled in 1909 at the Technische Hochschule, Darmstadt, to study architecture and engineering. He also travelled extensively in Europe, however, and he made a tour of Italy to study art and architecture. He frequently made drawings of the architectural monuments he encountered on his travels. These early graphic works were executed in a restrained, decorative style reminiscent of Russian Art Nouveau book illustration. His drawings of Vitebsk and Smolensk (1910; Eindhoven, Stedel. Van Abbemus.), for example, show a professional interest in recording specific architectural structures and motifs, but they are simultaneously decorative graphic works in their own right and highly suitable for publication. This innate awareness of the importance of controlling the design of the page was to remain a feature of Lissitzky’s work throughout radical stylistic transformations. He also recorded buildings in Ravenna, Venice, and elsewhere in Italy in ...

Article

Russian, 20th century, male.

Born 1890 , in Polschinock, in the Smolensk region; died 1941 , in Schodnia, near Moscow.

Architect, painter, sculptor, draughtsman, graphic designer, typographer, poster artist, illustrator, lithographer, photomontage artist, photographer, writer, collage artist. Stage sets.

Constructivism, Suprematism.

Obshchestvo Khudoznikov 4 Iskusstva (Four Arts Society), Vkhutemas...

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1940, in Lecce (Apulia).

Painter, watercolourist, illustrator, graphic designer, mixed media, photographer.

Moscara was born in the province of Salento, Apulia and taught at the Istituto d'Arte, Lecce from 1959 to 1982. His work included graphics and illustrations for books, painting and computer-generated images....

Article

American, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 24 September 1960, in Provincetown (Massachusetts).

Painter, sculptor, photographer, graphic artist. Figures, flowers, landscapes.

Jack Pierson studied at the Massachusetts College of Art in Boston, obtaining a BFA in 1984. He lives and works in New York City and in southern California, but travels frequently to Las Vegas and Provincetown. He has worked as a photographer for the magazine ...

Article

(b Melbourne, Sept 24, 1937).

Australian painter and photographer. From 1954 to 1957 he studied graphic design at the Swinburne College of Technology in Melbourne, where Dale Hickey was a fellow student. The year of his entry he began to exhibit at the Contemporary Art Society in Melbourne. His early work was influenced by figurative artists such as Ben Shahn and the illustrations of Andy Warhol and also by Charles Blackman, whom he knew personally. Later he came under the influence of Francis Bacon, as shown in The Fall (1963; artist’s col., see Catalano, p. 148), which was derived from a photograph of Benito Mussolini.

From the late 1950s Rooney was interested in ‘trivia’—odds and ends he found in old books, cartoons and illustrations. These formed his ‘Spon collection’ and some of it was incorporated into the Spondee Review, a single copy journal that he produced. Greatly admiring the writings of Gertrude Stein and the music of Erik Satie, he became fascinated by the possibilities of repetition. This led to the collection of works produced in the late 1960s, including the ...

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Active also active since 1960 in France.

Born 7 October 1918, in Catanzaro (Calabria); died 8 January 2006, in Milan.

Painter (mixed media), collage artist, photomontage artist, poster artist.

Affichisme, Mec Art.

New Realists Group.

While working in Rome for a government ministry, Mimmo Rotella became an officer trainee in Caserte, and later studied painting at the school of fine art in Naples. Little is known of his artistic activities until 1951, apart from the fact that he had already shown an interest in photography, photomontage, collage and assemblage techniques, as well as in phonetic poetry and primitive music. In 1951, he went to America after winning a scholarship from the Fulbright Foundation, and attended the University of Kansas City in Missouri until the end of 1952. He then returned to Rome and set up his own workshop. The art critic Pierre Restany invited him to become a member of the New Realists Group in Paris, which he joined in 1960, and from then on, he spent most of his time in Paris....