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Article

Piero Pacini

(b Turin, Aug 18, 1871; d Rome, March 1, 1958).

Italian painter, sculptor, stage designer, decorative artist and actor. He was one of the originators of Futurism (see Furttenbach [Furtenbach; Furttembach], Josef [Joseph], the elder) and was particularly concerned with the representation of light and movement. His personal interest in scientific methods of analysis contributed to both the practical and ideological bases of the movement. His oeuvre from the Futurist period overshadowed the work of later years.

Balla was self-taught and began painting in Turin. In 1895 he settled in Rome. At the age of about 25 he painted some lively sketches of urban life that are characterized by a thick impasto, for example the series Machietta romana (1898; Rome, priv. col., see Lista, 1982, nos 12–17) and landscapes showing familiarity with the divisionism practised by the northern Italian artists Giuseppe Pelizza da Volpedo, Giovanni Segantini and Vittore Grubicy de Dragon, for example Luci di marzo (...

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 3 August 1827, in Paris; died 1879, in Paris.

Sculptor. Busts.

Studied under Rude and exhibited at the Salon from 1848 to 1868. Little is known of his work other than some busts, notably of performers at the Paris Opéra and the Opéra-Comique....

Article

Roberto Pontual

(b Guadalajara, 1852; d Rio de Janeiro, 1931).

Brazilian sculptor. The son of Italian musicians, he spent his childhood in Mexico and Chile before coming to Brazil with his family. In 1870 he was already enrolled in the course on statuary sculpture in the Academia Imperial das Belas Artes in Rio de Janeiro, from where he was awarded a trip to Europe in 1876. He remained abroad until 1885, living briefly in Paris from 1878 to 1879 but staying mainly in Rome, where he finished his studies with Achille Monteverdi. During that time he executed one of his best-known works, the marble Christ and the Adulteress (1884; Rio de Janeiro, Mus. N. B.A.), which bears witness to the persistence in Brazil of a Neo-classically based naturalism throughout the 19th century and beyond. He taught in the Academia Imperial, and when this was renamed the Escola Nacional de Belas Artes with the establishment of the Republic, he became its director from ...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1849, in Orléans; died 1930.

Painter, watercolourist, sculptor, writer, musician. Landscapes.

Paul Besnard, the son of a magistrate, followed his father's example and became an examining magistrate in Romorantin. Being interested in painting, he asked his neighbour Henri Chouppe to teach him how to paint watercolours. One year after he first sent work to the Salon de Paris in ...

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 19th century, in Paris.

Sculptor.

At the Autumn salon of 1907, Henri Blanc exhibited a plaster statuette, Dancer. He was represented at the salon of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts in 1910.

Article

Ana Maria Rybko

(b Turin, March 1, 1869; d Rome, June 8, 1959).

Italian sculptor, teacher, composer and musician. He studied sculpture from 1880 at the Accademia Albertina di Belle Arti in Turin, under Odoardo Tabacchi, and initially adhered to the traditions of Naturalism, with Romantic and Renaissance influences. He later turned to Realism, making no concessions to the more avant-garde artistic tendencies of the 20th century. He established his reputation with a series of portraits of society personalities, including Emily Doria-Pamphili (marble, h. 570 mm, 1904; Rome, Gal. Doria-Pamphili; copies, Rome, G.N.A. Mod. and Mus. Canonica) and Donna Franca Florio (marble, h. 1050 mm, c. 1903–4; Rome, Mus. Canonica), and also members of the British royal family, such as Edward VII (marble, h. 570 mm, 1903; London, Buckingham Pal., Royal Col.). His vast output includes many works with symbolic or sacred subject-matter, as well as numerous funereal and commemorative monuments. These include the model (plaster, h. 330 mm) and statue (marble, h. 3.28 m) of ...

Article

Guilhem Scherf

(b Douai, Jan 26, 1758; d Paris, Dec 10, 1808).

French sculptor. He trained in Douai and then in Paris with Pierre-François Berruer. In 1781 he exhibited a group of animal sculptures at the Salon de la Correspondance, Paris, but by the following year he was settled in Lille, exhibiting regularly from 1782 to 1790 at the Salon organized by the Lille Académie. Little of his work from this period has been identified, but a terracotta group, signed and dated 1776, of Time Clipping Cupid’s Wings (Paris, Louvre) and two male portrait busts (Lille, Mus. B.-A.) give an idea of his style. The group is clumsy but powerful, treated with Flemish verve in the manner of a genre subject, while the busts of the architect Thomas-François-Joseph Gombert (1725–1801; terracotta, 1782) and of an unknown man (terracotta, 1786), though somewhat dry, are undeniably imbued with life and spirit. Other, untraced works by Corbet in this period include a sketch for a bas-relief in honour of Louis XVI (...

Article

Guilhem Scherf

(b Paris, 1749; d Paris, July 29, 1821).

French sculptor. He was a pupil of Augustin Pajou. He was never a member of the Académie Royale and until 1791 had no access to the official Salon, exhibiting instead at the Salon de la Correspondance, Paris, from 1781 to 1787; he was also denied access to the marble provided by the Bâtiments du Roi for royal commissions, for which only Academicians were eligible, and was forced to be principally a modeller producing works in terracotta or bronze. His chief patron was Prince Louis-Joseph de Condé, and among works commissioned by the Condé family were a bust of Louis II, the Grand Condé (bronze, c. 1780; untraced), and a statuette of the Grand Condé at Fribourg (exh. Salon de la Correspondance 1782), the terracotta (1780; Chantilly, Mus. Condé) and bronze (1785; Chantilly, Mus. Condé) versions of which were made were made by the great bronze-founder Pierre Philippe Thomire. Three further commemorative statuettes in bronze are at Chantilly. They represent ...

Article

Jean-Pierre de Bruyn

(b Lille, Feb 8, 1861; d Ghent, Jan 7, 1938).

Belgian painter, sculptor, illustrator, and stage designer. He studied music at the Koninklijk Muziekconservatorium and sculpture at the Gewerbeschule, Ghent (after 1877). He visited Paris in 1887 and Italy in 1890, with a grant from the city of Ghent. He was deeply impressed by the masters of the Quattrocento, and was encouraged to take up painting after meeting Constantin Meunier (1891). He painted Symbolist scenes and was influenced by Art Nouveau. After exhibiting his work with Les XX in Brussels (1893), he made decorative panels for Oostakker Castle.

As an illustrator Doudelet worked on Pol De Mont’s Van Jezus (Antwerp, 1897) and books by Maurice Maeterlinck, for example Douze chansons (Paris, 1896) and Pelléas et Mélisande (Brussels, 1892 or 1922). He illustrated the periodicals Réveil (1895–1896), De Vlaamsche school, Mercure de France, Pan, L’Eroica, Nuovo Convito, De Vlaamsche School, Woord en beeld...

Article

French, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1749, in Versailles; died 1825, in Paris.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, sculptor, draughtsman (wash), engraver, decorative artist. Mythological subjects, allegorical subjects, historical portraits, hunting scenes, interiors with figures, gardens. Stage costumes and sets, furniture, designs for fabrics, frontispieces.

Dugourc's father, who was in the service of the Duke of Orléans, had a considerable fortune. Dugourc was permitted to attend the lessons taken by the Duke of Chartres (the future Philippe-Égalité), and at the age 15 left for Rome, attached to the embassy of the Count of Cani. From his infancy, he had shown an aptitude for drawing, perspective and architecture. However, the death of his mother, followed shortly after by the loss of his father's fortune, changed his life. From being an amateur, Dugourc became a professional artist, and executed paintings, sculptures and engravings. In a work published in ...

Article

Italian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born 1859, in Codogno; died 16 December 1912, in Boulogne-sur-Mer, France.

Painter, watercolourist, sculptor. Stage costumes, figurines.

Edel made figurines and theatre costumes. He worked for Coquelin, Sarah Bernhardt, the Comédie Française and Barnum in Paris, as well as the Olympia Theatre in London and La Scala in Milan....

Article

Philip Ward-Jackson

(b Paris, Dec 6, 1824; d Paris, Sept 10, 1910).

French sculptor and stage designer. He was born into a poor though well-connected family and from the age of 12 contributed to the domestic funds by doing a variety of unskilled jobs. In 1838 he started evening classes at the Petite Ecole (Ecole Gratuite de Dessin), Paris, and between 1842 and 1844 worked in the studio of the sculptor François Rude, who was his uncle. The impact of Rude’s training method, combining the inspirational with an emphasis on the study of natural proportions and structure, was reinforced for Fremiet by the lessons he learnt in his first artistic enterprises: working with the painter and naturalist Jean-Charles Werner (fl 1830–60) at the Musée National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, on a compendium of comparative anatomy; helping Dr Mateo Orfila (1787–1853) assemble the specimens for his anatomical museum; and adding artistic touches to embalmed corpses at the Paris Morgue.

Fremiet made his Salon début in ...

Article

Latvian, 20th century, male.

Born 24 October 1962, in Riga, Latvian SSR (now Latvia).

Painter, graphic artist, multimedia artist. Allegorical subjects, abstraction and portraiture. Sculptural objects, conceptual installations.

Of the generation that came of age during Latvia’s transition from Soviet occupation to political independence, Kristaps Ģelzis distinguished himself as the most cerebral of that nation’s artists while, paradoxically, anchoring his work in intrinsic properties of base materials, the timelessness of simple forms, and labour-intensive craft. The son and younger brother of renowned architects, Ģelzis resolved to pursue another creative vocation, first studying violin while attending Riga’s 50th Secondary School, then taking preparatory classes for the Latvian Art Academy in lieu of attending the art high school. As a student in the academy’s department of graphic art ...

Article

Julia Robinson

(b Valrico, FL, 1930).

American performance artist and sculptor. Hay started out in the performance scene at Judson Memorial Church in downtown New York City in the early 1960s. He arrived in New York from Florida in 1959, after studying at the Florida State University (1953–8). His wife, the dancer Deborah Hay, was a key figure in the Judson Dance Theater, launched in the summer of 1962, and Alex Hay performed in many of its productions. In the early 1960s he assisted Robert Rauschenberg on set designs for Merce Cunningham, and danced with him with roller-skates and parachutes in Rauschenberg’s now famous performance piece Pelican (1963). After these collaborations, Hay was invited to participate in 9 Evenings: Theater & Engineering at New York’s 69th Regiment Armory (fall 1966). This initiative, conceived by Rauschenberg with critical contributions from the engineer Billy Klüver, was an idealistic effort to pair artists with engineers, to merge art and new technologies. That project evolved into ...

Article

Danish, 20th century, male.

Active also active in Germany.

Born 1 September 1938, in Copenhagen.

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman, watercolourist, engraver, performance artist, environmental artist. Landscapes.

Neo-Impressionism.

Fluxus, Nouveaux Fauves.

Per Kirkeby took a doctorate in geology and has participated in several scientific expeditions to Greenland, central America, central Asia and Ireland. In the 1960s, he was a member of the experimental art school in Copenhagen, which was close to the Fluxus group, and, in ...

Article

British, 19th century, female.

Active in France.

Born 1790; died 1863.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, sculptor, draughtswoman, illustrator, musician.

Marianne de Lamartine was of English origin and married Alphonse de Lamartine on 6 June 1820 and lived in France. An exhibition was dedicated to her in ...

Article

Philip Ward-Jackson

[Jean-Jacques]

(b Geneva, May 23, 1790; d Bougival, June 4, 1852).

Swiss sculptor, painter and composer. Prompted by his early displays of artistic talent, Pradier’s parents placed him in the workshop of a jeweller, where he learnt engraving on metal. He attended drawing classes in Geneva, before leaving for Paris in 1807. By 1811 he was registered at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and subsequently entered its sculpture competitions as a pupil of François-Frédéric, Baron Lemot. A more significant contribution to his artistic formation around this time was the guidance of the painter François Gérard. Pradier won the Prix de Rome in 1813 and was resident at the French Academy in Rome, from 1814 until 1819. On his return to France, he showed at the Salon of 1819 a group Centaur and Bacchante (untraced) and a reclining Bacchante (marble; Rouen, Mus. B.-A.). The latter, borrowing an erotically significant torsion from the Antique Callipygean Venus, opens the series of sensuous Classical female subjects that were to become Pradier’s forte. In ...

Article

Swiss, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 2 October 1866, in Geneva, to an English father and a French mother; died 7 October 1931, in London.

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman, illustrator. Historical subjects, mythological subjects. Stage costumes and sets.

Son of the painter Robert Ricketts, Charles de Sousy Ricketts studied at the Lambeth School and went on to co-found alongside C.H. Shannon a journal entitled ...

Article

Swedish, 19th – 20th century, female.

Born 29 July 1867, in Södermanland.

Sculptor, composer. Low reliefs.

Ellen Roosval studied painting in Berlin, then sculpture under Gaston Toussaint in Paris. She also took instruction from Carl Milles. The courtyard of the Internation Archives of the Dance in Paris, founded by her son Rolf de Maré, there is a low relief by Roosval, predictably entitled ...

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 2 November 1817, in Toulouse; died 20 March 1873, in Orléans.

Sculptor, painter, draughtsman, musician. Religious subjects, portraits. Busts, statuettes.

Orléans: Portrait of Meyerbeer (plaster bust); Christ (plaster statuette)