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Article

Stephen Addiss

[Uragami Hitsu; Ki Tasuku; Gyokudō, Ryosai]

(b Ikeda, Bizen Province [now Okayama Prefect.], 1745; d Kyoto, 1820).

Japanese Musician, painter, poet and calligrapher. Although he was more famous in his lifetime as a musician and little appreciated as an artist, Gyokudō has come to be considered one of Japan’s great painters in the literati painting tradition (Jap. Bunjinga or Nanga; see Japan §VI 4., (vi), (d)) and his rough, bold works are among Japan’s most powerful and individualistic artistic expressions. He belonged to the third generation of Japanese literati artists, who returned to painting in a more Sinophile, orthodox manner in contrast to the more unorthodox, Japanese approach of second-generation masters such as Ike Taiga and Yosa Buson.

He was born to a samurai-official family, and in 1752, a year after his father died, he took up the Ikeda clan duties. He received a Confucian-style education and as a youth studied the Chinese zither (qin). He was skilled both as a player and composer on this subtle instrument. The creative processes that he developed for composition, particularly with respect to asymmetry and repetition, were transferred to the calligraphy and painting of his later years. He took his art name (...

Article

Japanese, 20th century, female.

Born 1929, in Sabae-Shi.

Draughtswoman, collage artist, photomontage artist, performance artist. Artists’ books.

Fluxus.

After studying in Japan, Takako Saito went to the USA in 1963 where she made the acquaintance of George Maciunas and completed her education at the Brooklyn Museum Art School. In ...

Article

Norihisa Mizuta

[Xin yue; Shōun]

(b Puyang, nr Hangzhou, Zhejiang Prov., 1639; d Mito, Ibaragi Prefect., 1695).

Chinese Zen monk, seal-carver, calligrapher, poet and Musician, active in Japan. He left his family at the age of seven and entered the Buddhist order, first training in Jiangxi Province and eventually in Hangzhou. In 1677 he emigrated to Japan, at the invitation of the monk Chin’i Dōryō of Kōfukuji, an Obaku-sect Zen temple in Nagasaki. He took up missionary work but found himself at odds with Ōbaku monks and for a short time was held in temple confinement. In 1681 the daimyo of Mito, Tokugawa Mitsukuni (1628–1700), hearing of this situation, invited Shin’etsu to his fiefdom, where in 1692 he became founding abbot of Mitsukuni’s temple, Jushōzan Gionji (formerly Tentokuji) in Mito, later the place of his burial. Shin’etsu’s school of Buddhism is known as the Jushō or Shin’etsu school of Sōtō Zen.

Shin’etsu is best known as an artist and true literatus. Together with Dokuryū Shōeki...

Article

Zhong Hong

[Li Shu-t’ung; Wen Tao; hao Guanghou, Shutong; Xianying, Hongyi fashi]

(b Tainjin, Oct 23, 1880; d Quanzhou, Fujian Province, Oct 13, 1942)

Chinese painter, calligrapher, art educator and musician. A colourful and influential figure in the history of 20th-century Chinese art, he pioneered the introduction of Western arts, including commercial art, woodcut printmaking, modern drama and music, into China.

Li Shutong became interested in Western art at the Nanyang Public School in Shanghai. In 1905 he entered the Tokyo School of Fine Art in Ueno Park, where he studied oil painting under Kuroda Seiki, a leading Japanese painter trained in Paris. While in Tokyo he also attended piano courses at a music school. A lover of the theatre, he wrote some of the first modern dialogue plays in Chinese and put them on stage with fellow Chinese students. Back in China in 1910, Li taught graphic art at a technical college in Tianjin. From the following year he taught art and music in a girls’ school in Shanghai, where he later founded Wenmeihui (Literature and Art Society) and became for a short time art and literature editor of the ...

Article

Chinese, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in Iceland; Hamburg, Germany; and Shanghai.

Born 1960, in Zhoushan, China.

Installation artist, performance artist, book artist, painter.

In 1986, Wu graduated from the Zhejiang Academy of Fine Arts in Hangzhou and conceived his installation and performance series Red Humour...