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Julieta Ortiz Gaitán

(b Mexico City, June 27, 1943).

Mexican painter, printmaker, performance artist, writer, teacher and publisher. He qualified as a printmaker at a very early age, then as a painter and engraver under the tutelage of several masters, among whom the most influential on his life was José Chávez Morado. Although he at first worked with traditional media, he possessed a constantly innovative and critical attitude and experimented with performances, installations, happenings, correspondence and media art, as well as writing, lecturing and publishing on such themes as artistic experimentation, cultural promotion, professional management for artists, collective mural painting and the publishing process. From 1968 to 1972 Ehrenberg lived in England where, with the architect Martha Hellion and the critic and historian David Mayor, he founded the Beau Geste Press/Libro Acción Libre in Devon, to propagate the work of artists involved with the Fluxus movement of the 1970s. He was also instrumental in the rise of many artistic groups, workshops and small publishing houses, such as ...

Article

Christiaan Schuckman

(b Amsterdam, April 2, 1711; d Amsterdam, December 18, 1779).

Dutch etcher, publisher, painter, actor-manager. He worked as an actor in Amsterdam between 1732 and 1745 and from 1753 to 1772, and in Rotterdam between 1773 and 1776. Judging from the comments of contemporary critics, he was best known for his recitations on the stage, sometimes shouted. He received his training as an etcher from Adolf van der Laan (c. 1684/90–after 1740), while Jacob de Wit taught him to paint. Later Punt himself gave lessons to Reinier Vinkeles and others. In 1765 he was a member of the Amsterdam Guild of St Luke. His engravings, which date from 1732 to 1779, cover a wide range of subjects and reproduce mainly the work of contemporaries (the exception being his prints of Rubens’s paintings for the Jesuit church in Antwerp; the drawings for these prints were by Jacob de Wit). Punt’s work includes figures, portraits and frontispieces as well as genre, historical and topographical subjects....

Article

Lija Skalska-Miecik

(b Bohdanów, nr Vilna [now Vilnius, Lithuania], Dec 10, 1870; d Bohdanów, Oct 30, 1936).

Polish painter, printmaker and stage designer. In 1890–92 he studied law at the University of St Petersburg, but from the autumn of 1892 dedicated all his time to painting classes at the Academy of Fine Arts. He was a student of the Russian landscape painters Ivan Shishkin and Arkhip Kuindzhi. During his studies Ruszczyc went twice to the Crimea (1894 and 1895) to paint seascapes. In 1896 and 1897 he went to the Baltic islands of Rügen and Bornholm and to the southern coast of Sweden to paint studies of northern landscape. He also went several times to Berlin, where he first saw works by German Symbolist painters. The influence of Arnold Böcklin may be detected in works on fantastical themes, while Spring (1897; Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal.) recalls Kuindzhi’s luminism and the lyrical Russian landscape tradition. After graduation Ruszczyc made an extensive tour of western Europe, thus substantially enlarging his knowledge of contemporary European art. At the end of his journey (...