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Egyptian, 20th century, male.

Born 1940, in Cairo.

Painter, watercolourist, illustrator, decorative artist. Decorative motifs. Stage costumes and sets, designs for jewellery.

A pupil at the Académie Julian, the École des Arts Decoratifs and the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, Georges Doche went on to show his work in several public exhibitions and, in particular, at the Salon des Artistes Indépendants in Paris, as well as at several private galleries in Geneva, Tokyo and London. He had a number of solo exhibitions, including in Paris (...



Elizabeth Ann Schneider

Nguni-speaking people of Southern Africa. Historically they are divided into two distinct groups: one, living in Zimbabwe, has been mostly amalgamated into the North Sotho; the other, with a population of c. 330,000, lives on the high plains of Transvaal Province, South Africa, surrounded by such South Sotho people as the Pedi and Tswana. This second group comprises two chiefdoms: Ndzundza (also referred to as the people of Chief Mapoch or Mahlangu) and Manala. In the mid-19th century the Ndzundza were one of the major forces in the eastern Transvaal, but they were defeated by the Boers during the war of 1882–3. Their land was confiscated, and they were dispersed throughout the Transvaal and forced into service as indentured labourers. In 1923 they were able to purchase some land and began to regroup. In the mid-1970s the South African government established the ‘homeland’ of Kwa-Ndebele. Both the southern groups produce the ...


Andrew Cross

revised by Mary Chou

(b London Aug 9, 1962).

British sculptor, painter and installation artist. Born to Nigerian parents, he grew up in Nigeria before returning to England to study Fine Art in London at Byam Shaw School of Art and Goldsmiths’ College where he completed his MFA. Shonibare’s West African heritage has been at the heart of his work since he started exhibiting in 1988, when he began using ‘Dutch-wax’ dyed fabrics, commonly found in Western Africa, both for wall-mounted works (as pseudo paintings) and for sculpted figures. Generally perceived as ‘authentic’African cloth, the tradition of Batik originated in Indonesia, and was appropriated by the Dutch who colonized the country. Manufactured in Holland and Britain, the cloth was then shipped to West Africa where it became the dress of the working class in nations such as Nigeria. Shonibare used the material as a way of deconstructing the more complex histories that determine these and other images of ethnicity. As such, he has been described as a ‘post-cultural hybrid’ or the ‘quintessential postcolonial artist’ by critics as well as the artist himself....