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Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1939, in Los Angeles.

Sculptor, painter, collage artist.

Minimal Art, Finish Fetish, Light and Space.

Peter Alexander studied at the University of Pennsylvania from 1957 to 1962, the Architectural Association of London from 1960 to 1962, and the University of California ...

Article

Italian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 17 July 1947, in Milan.

Painter, sculptor, theorist.

Arte Povera, Conceptual Art.

Adriano Altamira put forward his first critical observations on the phenomena of vision in 1967. Next he began to use minimalist structures, plaits and interlacings, like some of the methods used in France by the ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1935, in Quincy (Massachusetts).

Sculptor, painter.

Minimal Art.

Carl Andre attended the Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts from 1951 to 1953, where he met Frank Stella. On a trip to Europe in 1954 he discovered Brancusi’s sculptures and megalithic monuments. He lives in New York....

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1923, in Washington DC; died 9 February 2013, in Albany (New York).

Sculptor, installation artist, painter, draughtsman.

Minimal Art.

Richard Artschwager had a German father and a Russian mother. He studied in New Mexico, then at Cornell University in New York. He fought in World War II in England, France, and finally in Vienna. He completed his scientific studies at Cornell University but immediately abandoned this route and entered the studio of Amédée Ozenfant, who had just emigrated to New York. From ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 1936, in Cologne.

Sculptor, painter (wash).

Minimal Art.

Bandau was made Professor of Sculpture at the academy of fine arts in Münster in 1988.

He exhibited laminated metallic plaques and other 'primary forms' at an exhibition in 1991 at the Maison de la Métallurgie in Liège. A group of his wash-drawings was exhibited at the Appel and Troschke Gallery in Frankfurt am Main in ...

Article

Ewa Mikina

(b Zawory, nr Gdańsk, June 15, 1934).

Polish painter, sculptor and stage designer. He studied at the Higher School of Plastic Arts in Poznań between 1952 and 1958. His abstract work has a certain affinity with hard-edge painting and Minimalism. In his early paintings the circular or oval shape of the canvas restates the shape of the form painted on it and thereby becomes its real analogue (as in Double Circles and Circle Compositions, 1962–5). At about the same time he produced sculptures made from thin wire. In the paintings after 1965 the actual space becomes a part of the composition and begins to supplant painted, illusory forms; and the ‘empty’ space starts to play an increasingly important role (e.g. Structural Painting with Hole, 1965).

At the end of the 1960s Berdyszak produced the series of double and triple Integral Paintings, in which the initial formal composition is subjected to multiplication and modification. The sculptures from this period are loosely assembled groups of simple, geometrical elements that allow the viewer to rearrange them. Between ...

Article

American, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1947, in New York.

Painter, sculptor.

James Biederman was a sculptor at Yale University in the 1970s. He produced Minimalist paintings in the 1980s and then turned to a form of gritty, smudged abstraction that might be considered Abstract Landscapism. He has said that to reach the essence of sculpture, his body must always be moving and readjusting. Sculpture has its own world (simultaneously hiding and revealing fictitious space) and excludes him from that world. He feels both drawn into its kingdom and repulsed by his protuberances and tentacles....

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Active also active in Switzerland.

Born 24 March 1940, in Menzonio.

Sculptor, painter.

Minimal Art.

Camesi was a self-taught painter and sculptor. After 1958, he lived in Geneva and took up painting. His first attempts at sculpture were in 1965, using first wood and cardboard, then metal and plexiglas. Two features in particular characterise Camesi's work. The first is the way the material is used for what it is, metal or plexiglas, and in its raw state, as it comes from the factory. The second, in the artistic, creative stage, is the repetition of a single element, which is multiplied and developed geometrically into spatial structures. His sculptures, close to Conceptual Art in some of their aims, also tend to highlight and mark out space, in a kind of 'Space Art'. His use of arrow signs is an example. They define what he calls 'conditioning points', conditioning the viewer in terms of what he or she should observe and what should provoke reflection. These arrows can be real and precisely positioned or they may simply be painted, for example, on to a photograph. For Camesi, space is a structured and vital substance, proportional to human beings, and he therefore treats it as having real existence....

Article

French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 12 December 1951, in Jonzac.

Painter, sculptor.

Minimal Art.

Philippe Compagnon lives and works in Paris. He has featured at a number of group exhibitions: in 1986 at the Salon de la Jeune Sculpture in Paris; in 1987 and ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1 October 1935, in Albany (California); died 25 July 2013, in Los Angeles.

Sculptor, draughtsman.

Minimal Art, Land Art.

Walter De Maria studied the history of art at the University of Berkeley, and earned his MFA in 1959. His work cannot be neatly categorized within a single movement, but rather reaches across boundaries and includes Conceptual, Land, Installation, and Minimal Art. He initially participated in the Minimalist movement, of which he was one of the leaders with Robert Morris, Carl Andre, and Donald Judd, reducing his sculptures to simple geometric shapes and strategically engaging the use of gallery space in the interpretation of his works. In ...

Article

American, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1943, in Long Beach (California).

Painter, sculptor.

Minimalism.

John Laddie Dill was the brother of the sculptor Guy Dill. He studied at the Chouinard Art Institute in Los Angeles from 1964 to 1968. On graduating, he started a framing business with his former classmate Chuck Arnoldi before joining Gemini G.E.I. as an apprentice printer. Here he met Robert Rauschenberg, Roy Lichtenstein and Jasper Johns who were to influence his subsequent work. In ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1910 or 1913, in Des Moines (Iowa); died 1966, in New York.

Painter, sculptor.

Minimal Art.

Paul Feeley studied at Menlo College in California from 1930 to 1931, and at the Art Students League in New York from 1931 to 1934...

Article

American, 20th–21st century, male.

Born 1944, in New York.

Sculptor, draughtsman, photographer, painter, installation.

Land Art, Environmental Art.

Richard Fleischner graduated from the Rhode Island School of Design with a BFA in 1966 and an MFA in 1968, both degrees focusing on sculpture. During the 1970s and 1980s, Fleischner became a leading figure in environmental art....

Article

Deborah A. Middleton

(b Berkeley, CA, Nov 4, 1944).

American sculptor, painter, and printmaker. Heizer’s earthworks erected in the vast desert expanses of the American Midwest marked the beginning of the Heizer, Michael movement of the 1960s and liberated art from the confines of the art gallery. Heizer’s early experience and exposure to desert landscapes and Native American culture was influenced by his father Robert Heizer, an important American archaeologist, and his maternal grandfather Olaf P. Jenkins, who was an important early American geologist. He attended the San Francisco Art Institute (1963–4) to study painting and moved to New York (1966). In 1967 Heizer left New York to return to the American Midwest with colleague Walter De Maria, and began artistic collaborations with James Turrell and Robert Smithson to explore the making of land art.

Heizer’s early paintings explored the interaction of two-dimensional and three-dimensional geometric forms influenced by the Abstract Expressionists of the late 1940s and 1950s. By ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 3 June 1928, in Excelsior Springs (Missouri); died 12 February 1994, in New York.

Painter, sculptor.

Minimal Art.

Donald Judd served one year in the US army in Korea before attending the Art Students League in New York. At the same time, he studied philosophy at Columbia University where he would return, 10 years into his art career, in the early 1960s to attend Meyer Shapiro’s art history course. Judd worked as an art critic from 1959 to 1965. He was an instructor at the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences from 1962 to 1964; was Visiting Artist at Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, in 1966; and in 1967 taught sculpture at Yale University in New Haven. He operated from New York, then Marfa (Texas). In 1993, he received the Rembrandt award in Amsterdam....

Article

Alfred Pacquement

revised by Tom Williams

(b Excelsior Springs, MO, June 3, 1928; d New York, Feb 12, 1994).

American sculptor, painter, and writer. After a mandatory term in the US Army between 1946 and 1947, Judd spent brief periods studying art at the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, VA (1948–9) and at the Art Students League in New York City (1948 and 1949). He subsequently completed a BA in philosophy (1950–53) at Columbia University and later returned to pursue, but not complete, an MA in art history (1958–60). In 1959, he began writing art criticism for publications such as ARTnews and Arts Magazine and, in the early 1960s, he was better known as a critic than as an artist. In this capacity, he became an enthusiastic supporter of artists such as Lee Bontecou, John Chamberlain, Dan Flavin, Yayoi Kusama, Claes Oldenburg, and Frank Stella, and many of his essays played an important part in critical debates throughout the decade and during subsequent years. After his first one-man exhibition in ...

Article

Native American (Inupiaq/Athabascan), 21st century, female.

Born 1969, in Bethal (Alaska).

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman, installation artist.

Inupiaq/Athabascan artist Sonya Kelliher-Combs holds a BFA from the University of Alaska–Fairbanks (1998) and an MFA from Arizona State University (1992). In 2007 she was awarded an Eiteljorg Fellowship for Native American Fine Art. Her work is included in the collections of the Anchorage Museum, Alaska State Museum, University of Alaska Museum of the North and Eiteljorg Museum....

Article

Irish, 20th century, male.

Born 1942, in Dublin.

Sculptor, painter.

Minimal Art.

Brian King studied at the National College of Art in Dublin. King's work can be described as minimal abstract.

1965, Irish Living Art exhibition (Carroll Prize)

1969, Paris Biennale (awarded a bursary)

1973...

Article

Ulrike Lehmann

(b Nice, April 28, 1928; d Paris, June 6, 1962).

French painter, sculptor, performance artist and writer.

He was the son of the Dutch-born painter Fred Klein (b 1898), whose work was representational, and Marie Raymond (b 1908), who developed a reputation in the 1950s as an abstract artist, and whose abstraction was influential on the development of her son’s work. Although he had had no formal art training, he was already making his first serious attempts at painting by 1946 and showing his interest in the absoluteness of colour by formulating his first theories about monochrome. In 1946 he befriended Arman, with whom he was later to be associated in the Nouveau Réalisme movement, and the writer Claude Pascal, whom he met at a judo class. Together they developed their interest in esoteric writing and East Asian religions. Klein became a student of the Rosicrucian Fellowship in 1946 and was influenced both by its mystical philosophy and by judo. In ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1938, in Kansas City (Missouri).

Sculptor, draughtsman.

Minimal Art.

Rockne Krebs trained in sculpture at the University of Kansas. Although not a painter, he is fascinated with the idea of colour and has created sculptural work entirely made of light and colour which led to development of 'laser sculpture'. In ...