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Article

Austrian, 20th century, male.

Born 10 March 1871, in Waidhofen-am-Ybbs; died 19 May 1956, in Vienna.

Painter, sculptor, engraver, illustrator. Genre scenes. Toys.

Art Nouveau.

Secession group.

Andri studied under Julius Berger and Edouard Lichtenfels at the Venice Academy, then, from 1892, under Claus Meyer at Karlsruhe Academy, before returning to settle in Venice. In ...

Article

Bauhaus  

Rainer K. Wick

[Bauhaus Berlin; Bauhaus Dessau, Hochschule für Gestaltung; Staatliches Bauhaus in Weimar]

German school of art, design and architecture, founded by Walter Gropius. It was active in Weimar from 1919 to 1925, in Dessau from 1925 to 1932 and in Berlin from 1932 to 1933, when it was closed down by the Nazi authorities. The Bauhaus’s name referred to the medieval Bauhütten or masons’ lodges. The school re-established workshop training, as opposed to impractical academic studio education. Its contribution to the development of Functionalism in architecture was widely influential. It exemplified the contemporary desire to form unified academies incorporating art colleges, colleges of arts and crafts and schools of architecture, thus promoting a closer cooperation between the practice of ‘fine’ and ‘applied’ art and architecture. The origins of the school lay in attempts in the 19th and early 20th centuries to re-establish the bond between artistic creativity and manufacturing that had been broken by the Industrial Revolution. According to Walter Gropius in ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 1925, in Paris.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman, engraver, sculptor, designer of ornamental architectural features. Figures, landscapes. Statues.

Art Deco.

François Brochet was the son of the painter and playwright Henri Brochet, and was taught dance, theatre and puppeteering at home. In ...

Article

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 1869, in Antwerp; died 1941, in Brussels.

Painter, sculptor, illustrator, poster artist. Religious subjects, portraits, landscapes.

Art Nouveau.

Having first studied law, Ghisbert Combaz became a pupil at the academy in Antwerp and a professor at the Brussels academy. He spent most of his life in Antwerp, where he exhibited from 1886 onwards; he also exhibited in conjunction with the association of Art Nouveau artists known as the Libre Esthétique from 1897. As an art historian, he made special study of the art of the Far East. With their sinuous and undulating rhythm, the arabesques in his engravings and posters provide typical examples of the Modern Style....

Article

Polish, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1866, in Lubaczów; died 1924, in Cracow.

Painter, draughtsman, illustrator, decorative artist, ceramicist, sculptor, designer. Portraits, genre scenes, landscapes. Furniture.

Symbolism, Art Nouveau.

Debicki studied at the Akademie der bildenden Künste in Vienna from 1881 to 1884, then in Munich, Paris, Lemberg (now Lviv, Ukraine) and Cracow. He first settled in Lemberg and began teaching in ...

Article

American, 20th century, female.

Born 23 December 1901, in Cleveland (Ohio); died 22 September 1994, in New York City.

Painter, sculptor. Abstraction.

Modernism, New York School, Abstract Expressionism.

Dorothy Dehner’s immediate family (her mother, father, and sister) had all passed away by the time she was 18 and her aunt Flo became her primary caregiver. Her aunts, Flo and Cora, were artistically inclined and aroused her interests in the arts. In 1915, Dorothy, her mother, Lulu, older sister Louise, and aunt Flo moved to California. In 1916, Dehner enrolled at Pasadena High School and began to study theatre at the Pasadena Playhouse under director Gilmore Brown. In 1922, she studied drama at the University of California Los Angeles; however, she didn’t graduate with a degree. After only one year at the University of California Los Angeles, she decided to pursue a full-time career as an actor. Dehner moved to New York in the mid-1920s and was cast in several Off-Broadway productions including Walter Hartwig’s Little Theater Productions....

Article

Swiss, 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born 20 March 1877, in Lancy (Geneva); died 7 June 1942.

Painter (lacquer), decorative designer, coppersmith, sculptor.

Art Deco.

Jules John Dunand trained at the École des Arts Industriels in Geneva, along with the wood engraver François Louis Schmied, who would be his friend and collaborator for the rest of his life. Together, they went to work in Paris in 1897. Dunand was one of the artists employed to make groups of winged horses for the Pont Alexandre III, in readiness for the opening of the Exposition Universelle of 1900. He also managed to find time for his own work, and began exhibiting some quite conventional sculptures at the Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts....

Article

Swiss, 20th century, male.

Born 1909, in Zurich.

Sculptor, painter, architect.

Hans Fischli studied architectural drawing from 1925 to 1928. During a journey to Stuttgart he visited the Weissenhof estate, the first manifestation of modernity in architecture. From 1929 to 1930 he was a student of architecture and decoration at the Bauhaus, also attending courses in painting given by Kandinsky and Klee, and by Oskar Schlemmer in the wall painting department. At the Bauhaus he met Max Bill. On returning to Zurich in ...

Article

Lucius Grisebach

(b Döbeln, nr Dresden, July 31, 1883; d Radolfzell, nr Konstanz, Jan 27, 1970).

German painter, printmaker and sculptor. He was one of the founders of the group Brücke, Die and one of its most influential and active members. His work was central to German Expressionism.

Heckel began painting and drawing as a schoolboy in Chemnitz, where he became a friend of Karl Schmidt (later Schmidt-Rottluff). In 1904 Heckel went to Dresden to study architecture under Fritz Schumacher at the Technische Hochschule, where he met Ernst Ludwig Kirchner and the artist Fritz Bleyl (1880–1966). In 1905 the four artists, united by common artistic desires and aims, formed Die Brücke. Heckel abandoned his architectural studies in order to pursue his creative work and to organize the group, although he continued to work as a draughtsman and site manager for the architect Wilhelm Kreis until 1907. In common with other members of the group, Heckel drew and painted life models, either in the studio or ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 15 March 1874, in Benrath, near Düsseldorf; died 1956, in Bad Dosen-Salmünster.

Painter, sculptor. Animals. Designs (decorative arts).

Jugendstil, Art Deco.

Leven worked in Düsseldorf and Bremen and taught at the Hanau Academy from 1910. He had a studio in Paris....

Article

Latvian, 20th century, female.

Born 23 August 1908, in Riga, Russian Empire (now Latvia); died 21 December 1983, in Riga, Latvian SSR (now Latvia).

Painter, sculptor, tapestry designer. Still-life, portrait, celestial, and abstract subjects, assemblages.

Zenta Logina survived decades of material adversity, official hostility, and professional obscurity to produce one of Latvian art’s most stylistically diverse, technically inventive, and intellectually ambitious bodies of work. Like many Latvian artists of her generation, Logina spent World War I as a refugee in the Russian interior, returning to a newly independent nation consciously fashioning its modern cultural identity. In ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 1882, in Troyes; died 1960, in Troyes.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman, sculptor. Scenes with figures, landscapes.

Art Deco.

Maurice Marinot entered the studio of Fernand Cormon at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris in 1901, but was soon excluded. Influenced by the Nabis, he aligned himself with the Fauves and ...

Article

Deborah Cullen

[MoMA] (New York)

The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) was founded in 1929 by patrons Lillie P(lummer) Bliss, Cornelius J. Sullivan and Rockefeller family §(1) to establish an institution devoted to modern art. Over the next ten years the Museum moved three times and in 1939 settled in the Early Modern style building (1938–9) designed by Philip S. Goodwin and Edward Durell Stone that it still occupies at 11 West 53 Street. Subsequent renovations and expansions occurred in the 1950s and 1960s by Philip Johnson, in 1984 by Cesar Pelli and in 2002–4 by Yoshirō Taniguchi (b 1937). MoMA QNS, the temporary headquarters during this project, was subsequently used to provide art storage. In 2000, MoMA and the contemporary art space, P.S.1, Long Island City, Queens, announced their affiliation. Recent projects are shown at P.S.1 in Queens in a renovated public school building.

According to founding director, Alfred H(amilton) Barr...

Article

dele jegede

revised by Kristina Borrman

(b Idumuje-Ugboko, Delta State, Dec 20, 1935).

Nigerian painter, sculptor, architect, and set designer. Nwoko’s works of art and architecture have been understood as exhibiting the tensions between modernism and indigenous design. Nwoko’s own published discussions of the political history of Nigeria and his recommendations for improvements in education, medicine, environmental conservation, and mechanical engineering have inspired art histories that describe him as not only an artist–architect but as an advocate for social reform.

Nwoko was one of the first of his generation of contemporary Nigerian artists to study fine arts at the Nigerian College of Arts, Science and Technology, Zaria (1957–61). During his time as a student in Nigeria, Nwoko (along with classmate Uche Okeke) designed the Pavilion of Arts and Crafts, Lagos, in celebration of Nigerian Independence (1960). After his graduation, Nwoko won a scholarship from the Congress for Cultural Freedom to study scenic design at the Centre Français du Théâtre. Nwoko continued his studies at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, choosing to add the disciplines of fresco painting and architectural decoration to his educational programme....

Article

Donna Corbin

(b Münster, May 16, 1872; d Baierbrunn, Upper Bavaria, April 5, 1943).

German designer, architect, sculptor and painter. He was the son of a cabinetmaker and studied painting at the Staatliche Kunstakademie in Düsseldorf (1889–91) and in Berlin (1891–2) before settling in Munich in 1892. Working as a portrait painter and graphic designer, he contributed illustrations to a number of periodicals including Pan (from 1895) and Jugend (from 1896). His earliest furniture designs were a chair and mirror shown at the seventh Internationale Kunstausstellung held at the Glaspalast in Munich in 1897. In the following year he was commissioned by F. A. O. Krüger (b 1868), one of the founder-members of the Vereinigte Werkstätten für Kunst im Handwerk, Munich, to produce designs for the workshop. Like other designers of the Vereinigte Werkstätten, such as Richard Riemerschmid, Peter Behrens or Bruno Paul, Pankok produced designs in a variety of media, although his designs for furniture are probably his most original. His early furniture designs are characterized by a certain heaviness and ‘organic’ look, recalling the work of Antoni Gaudí and representing the more expressionistic, less functional, aspect of ...

Article

Matthew Gale

(b Como, Aug 1, 1898; d Milan, 1987).

Italian painter and sculptor. He studied painting at the Scuole Techniche in Como, where he met Manlio Rho and Giuseppe Terragni. Military service took him to Vienna, Paris and Warsaw (1918–20) and, after abandoning veterinary studies, he was employed by a paper manufacturer (1924–30) and went to Buenos Aires. Radice exhibited severe academic works in Como (e.g. Portrait of the Artist’s Wife, 1928–30; priv. col., see 1985 exh. cat., fig.), painting full-time only from 1930. Over the next two years he visited Cologne and Paris, where the example of Fernand Léger, Theo van Doesburg and Piet Mondrian led to his conversion to geometric abstraction. By 1932 Radice, Rho and Carla Badiali (b 1907), together with the Rationalist architects Terragni, Pietro Lingeri and Cesare Cattaneo (1912–43), constituted the Gruppo di Como. The painters’ pure forms evoked Classical order and proportion, as well as organic systems in nature. Radice, ...

Article

Mark Allen Svede

[Latv. Rīgas Mākslinieku Grupa; RMG]

Latvian association of painters and sculptors active from 1920 to 1940. Among its founder-members were Jēkabs Kazaks, Romans Suta and Uga Skulme (1895–1963). From its inception, the group was a small confederation of modernist painters and sculptors devoted to the advancement of avant-garde aesthetics in Latvia. Despite a changing membership, a relatively informal structure and internal disagreements about the specifics of a modernist agenda, the group projected a unified identity in its 13 exhibitions, the earliest of which introduced Latvian interpretations of progressive western European styles to Riga’s conservative audiences. Suta and Uga Skulme were among the most vocal defenders of modernism in Latvia, as they competed for the unofficial position of ideologue of the group. The Riga Artists’ group was the successor to the Expressionists (Ekspresionisti), who were responsible for the local début of Expressionism during the first significant post-war exhibition in independent Latvia. Most members of the Expressionists, including Kazaks, the leader, became founder-members of the Riga Artists’ group, and just as its new, generalized name admitted the possibility of pluralism, members began to explore other styles. The attrition of the Expressionists ...