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Australian, 20th century, male.

Painter, sculptor.

Boles received an artistic training thanks to a re-education project for former servicemen from the Commonwealth. He subsequently had the advantage of commissions for public collections. He spent a long period of time in Europe. He featured in the international exhibition of sculpture at the Musée Rodin in Paris in ...


Australian, 20th century, male.

Born 1940.

Painter, sculptor, illustrator.

Peter Booth passed from Abstract-Minimal painting to a violent Expressionism in 1977, at which time he realised his first Figurative painting. His works frequently depict human misfortunes and torments, in chaotic compositions tinged with religious sentiments....


Richard Haese

[Michael] (Gordon Challis)

(b Sydney, May 8, 1938).

Australian painter and sculptor. He studied art at the East Sydney Technical College (1956–8) but left dissatisfied before completing the course. An important stage in his development was his discovery in 1959 of Australian Aboriginal art and the art of Melanesia and Polynesia, which he saw in New Zealand and on a visit to New Guinea in 1960 while working with the Australian Commonwealth Film Unit. In 1961–2 he lived in the Sydney suburb of Annandale with fellow artist Ross Crothall (b 1934) producing the first of his significant work. With Colin Lanceley the artists held two influential exhibitions in 1962 of painting, collages and assemblage, in Melbourne at the Museum of Modern Art and Design and in Sydney at the Rudy Komon Art Gallery, using the name Annandale Imitation Realists. They exploited discarded materials and disdained finish in a raw and irreverent art that mixed painting and sculpture, often collaborating on work. Imitation Realism was the first full expression of ...


New Zealander, 20th century, female.

Born 30 April 1890, in Wellington.

Painter, sculptor. Landscapes, flowers. Busts.

Margaret Butler exhibited in Paris from 1927 at the Salon of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts and the Salon des Tuileries.

As well as her busts, Butler is known for a ...


Australian, 20th century, male.

Active in England from 1935, and in Italy from 1958.

Born 1897, in Woodend, Victoria; died 1987, near Bordighera, Italy.

Painter, sculptor. Portraits, landscapes.

Colin Colahan studied under the tonalist painter Max Meldrum in Melbourne from 1916 to 1919, and continued his training in London and Paris. He exhibited at the Salon des Artistes Français ...


Australian, 20th century, male.

Born 1942, in Warrnambool (Victoria).

Painter, printmaker, sculptor.

Tony Coleing studied at the National School of Art in Sydney and continued his training in England. In 1964, he travelled in Europe and exhibited in London. In 1968, back in Sydney, he began exhibiting his colourful sculptures regularly....


Robert Smith

(b Melbourne, Oct 4, 1913; d Melbourne, July 5, 1986).

Australian painter, printmaker, draughtsman, sculptor, cartoonist and illustrator. Largely self-taught, he began printmaking in 1931 and worked as a caricaturist, cartoonist and illustrator for the weekly and left-wing press, his outlook influenced by experience on the dole and political struggle during the Depression. In 1941 he began oil painting, his first pictures being mainly a celebration of Australian working-class tenacity during the 1930s: for example At the Start of the March (1944; Sydney, A.G. NSW). A founder-member of the Contemporary Art Society in 1938, he initiated its 1942 anti-Fascist exhibition and helped organize an Artists’ Unity Congress, receiving awards for his paintings of miners in the ensuing Australia at War exhibition in 1945. From 1939 to 1940 he was in New Zealand and from 1949 to 1952 in Europe, mostly London. Later he made frequent trips to Britain and France, as well as visiting the USSR and Mexico.

Counihan’s imaginative and creative versatility enabled him to produce extended pictorial metaphors for inherent contemporary crises, embodying potent artistic responses to specific conditions of oppression and discrimination, the nuclear threat and attendant social alienation. From the late 1960s he created images in numerous interrelated series challenging Australia’s involvement in the Vietnam War, for example ...


Australian, 20th century, male.

Active in Italy.

Born 1935, in Melbourne.

Painter, sculptor. Figures.

Rodney Dudley studied art in Melbourne and taught in Victoria until 1965 when he received a bursary from the Italian government. He continued his training at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera in Milan under Marino Marini and Alik Cavaliere, and then settled in northern Italy. In ...


A. K. C. Petersen

(b Bromley, Kent, March 3, 1899; d Auckland, Feb 18, 1987).

English painter, sculptor, potter and teacher, active in New Zealand. He studied from 1919 to 1924 at the Royal College of Art in London, where he first became interested in the modern movement in painting and experimented with direct carving. In 1925 he emigrated to New Zealand to take up a position at the King Edward Technical College, Dunedin. There he proved an influential teacher. He established the Six and Four Art Club, partly in response to the English 7 & 5 Society, and inspired several students who were to become leading New Zealand painters, notably Colin McCahon and M. T. Woollaston.

Mostly small-scale, Field’s work was experimental and helped to free art in New Zealand from representational values. Paintings such as Christ at the Well of Samaria (1929; Wellington, Mus. NZ, Te Papa Tongarewa) were striking for their pure colour and pointillist brushwork. Carvings such as Wahine (...


Australian, 20th – 21st century, female.

Born 1964, in Maryborough (Queensland).

Painter, engraver, sculptor.

Fiona Foley is an Aboriginal from the Wondunna clan of the Badtjala people. She studied at Sydney College of the Arts and Sydney University. She was a founding member of Boomalli Aboriginal Artists Cooperative in Sydney in ...


Australian, 20th century, male.

Active in the USA.

Born 1920, in Sydney; died 2001, in Sydney.

Sculptor, draughtsman.

The son of a Polish-born father, Robert Klippel served in the navy during World War II. He subsequently trained at the Slade School of Fine Art, London, from 1944 to 1946. He settled for a time in Paris, where he met André Breton, who organised an exhibition of his work at the Galerie Nina Daussett in 1949. In 1956 his work featured alongside that of the Australian Abstract Expressionists Pasmore, Olsen, R. Smith and Rose in the exhibition ...


(b St Petersburg, Sept 13, 1873; d Cobbity, NSW, May 29, 1930).

Australian painter, draughtsman and sculptor. He lived for a period in Europe and emigrated to Australia in 1887. He trained under Julian Rossi Ashton, gaining early recognition for his draughtsmanship. In 1901 he studied in Paris at the Académie Colarossi under Auguste Delécluse (b 1855). He was strongly influenced by the work of Diego Velázquez and Edouard Manet. The work of Sandro Botticelli later inspired him to paint in a high key and with an enhanced realism, as in Important People (1914; Sydney, A.G. NSW). He lived in England from 1902 to 1921, and thereafter in Australia.

At first Lambert earned his living through illustrations for magazines and books. In early paintings such as Across the Black Soil Plains (1899; Sydney, A.G. NSW), he expressed a nationalist sentiment through the depiction of Australian pioneers. His principal work was in portraiture, in both pencil and oil, in which he demonstrated a sensitive appreciation of character and bravura style. He also painted large, highly stylized paintings of family and friends, such as ...


Australian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in Australia from 1887.

Born 13 September 1873, in St Petersburg, Russia, to an American father and a British mother; died 29 May 1930, in Cobbity, New South Wales.

Painter, sculptor. Nudes, portraits, genre scenes, landscapes.

George Washington Lambert's family lived in Württemberg, Germany and in England before migrating to Australia in 1887. He trained with Julian Ashton at the Art Society of New South Wales in Sydney and in 1894 he exhibited with the Art Society and the Society of Artists. The following year he began producing pen-and-ink cartoons for the ...


New Zealander, 20th century, male.

Active in England from 1965.

Born 6 January 1938, in Dunedin; died 30 January 2015, in Sydney.

Sculptor, painter, engraver, draughtsman, mixed media.

Colin Lanceley spent his childhood and youth in Australia, where his family moved from New Zealand in ...


Vivien Johnson

(b Kooralia, N. Territory, ?1929–39; d Alice Springs, 1984).

Australian Aboriginal painter and wood-carver. He was the initiated man of the Anmatyerre/Aranda language group. Leura grew up on Napperby station and worked as a stockman before moving to Papunya with his young family when the settlement was established in the late 1950s. There he worked as a carver of wooden snakes and goannas renowned in central Australia for their brilliant craftsmanship. When painting began at Papunya in 1971, he quickly joined the group and became the close friend and assistant of the art teacher Geoffrey Bardon (b 1940). He also enlisted his younger brother Clifford Possum Tjapaltjarri. In the mid-1970s the brothers’ collaboration on a series of large topographical paintings incorporating several Dreaming stories in map-like configuration on one canvas was of considerable importance. It was one of the factors that gave the painting from Papunya a greater appeal to European sensibilities. Leura became custodian of the country known as Nurta on Napperby Creek, and painted the Possum, Yam, Fire, Blue Tongue Lizard, Sun, Moon and Morning Star Dreamings associated with this area. Always prolific, he had a delicacy of touch, and his translucent painterly effects are distinctive even in his earliest works. The sombreness of his work reflects a profound sadness at the loss of the old ways of life....


Pamela Bell

(b Mosman, NSW, April 23, 1908; d Emu Plains, NSW, Feb 20, 1978).

Australian painter, textile designer, and sculptor. From 1925 to 1929 she studied in Sydney with Anthony Dattilo Rubbo (1870–1955), an Italian-born academic painter whose students were significant in the development of modernism in Australia. In 1933 Lewers studied at the London Central School of Arts and Crafts, and met Herbert Read and the artists of Unit One. Her works during the 1930s included Bauhaus-inspired domestic artefacts, such as pottery, modernist timber furniture, and hand-printed fabrics. After World War II she continued her studies in Sydney with the Hungarian artist Desiderius Orban (1884–1986), who had himself studied at the Académie Julian in Paris when Cubism was developing. Lewers took up his Aristotelian ideas based on the essence of the object. She was influenced by Vieira da Silva and later Afro, whose paintings were exhibited in Sydney, and also by colleagues who followed the ideas of Dynamic Symmetry. However, she did not study modernist theory herself but worked intuitively and was not part of any artistic group or movement....


Australian, 20th century, male.

Born 22 February 1879, in Creswick (Victoria); died 21 November 1969, in Springwood (New South Wales).

Painter, watercolourist, engraver, illustrator, sculptor.

Norman Lindsay was the younger brother of Lionel Lindsay. In 1896 he moved to Melbourne where he covered his brother's illustration job at the ...


Roger Horrocks

[Huai, Leonard Charles]

(b Christchurch, July 5, 1901; d New York, May 15, 1980).

American film maker, sculptor, and painter of New Zealand birth. He began work in New Zealand, then moved to Australia, Samoa, and England (where he settled in 1926). Tusalava (1929) was the first of his 24 films. He pioneered various methods of ‘direct’ film making, eliminating the camera by painting directly on to clear film (Colour Box, 1935), developing the ‘rayogram’ technique (Colour Cry, 1952) and scratching black film (Free Radicals, 1958). He experimented with colour processing in Rainbow Dance (1936) and Trade Tattoo (1937).

The batiks (e.g. Polynesian Connection, 1928) and oil paintings (e.g. Jam Session, 1936; both New Plymouth, NZ, Govett-Brewster A.G.) that Lye exhibited with the Seven and Five Society (1927–34) and in the International Surrealist Exhibition (1936) were influenced by his profound study of tribal art. In 1944...


Australian, 20th century, female.

Painter, sculptor, potter.

Helen Marshall studied painting in Melbourne in the studio of George Bell, from 1947 to 1950. She has exhibited in Italy, France, Belgium and Australia since 1951. In 1966, a retrospective of her work was held at the Palais des Beaux-Arts in Brussels....


(b Tokomaru Bay, Aug 10, 1933).

New Zealand painter and sculptor. He studied art at Dunedin Teachers’ College in 1957. He was one of a group of young Maori arts and crafts advisers who were encouraged to develop art forms drawing on their Maori cultural heritage and growing knowledge of Western art. Contact with the master carver Pine Taiapa from 1960 to 1972 helped deepen Matchitt’s awareness of Maori art. His major works are either community-orientated projects or series centred on a common theme. Among his community projects are painted murals in the dining-halls at Whangaparaoa, Cape Runaway, and at Turangawaewae Marae, Ngaruawahia. A subject central to his output from 1967 was the 19th-century Maori religious leader Te Kooti Rikirangi, exemplified by the mixed-media wall sculpture Te Kooti (1986; U. Auckland). Matchitt was a leader in the renaissance of Maori art, which draws on the resources of Maori traditional culture and history in the shaping of contemporary work....